Pain pp 163-165 | Cite as

Indirect Pain Measurement

  • Alaa Abd-ElsayedEmail author
  • Ravi Grandhi
  • Maxim Eckmann


Measurement of pain severity can be difficult in neonates, infants and patients with dementia or cognitive impairment. In these patients who may not be able to communicate, it is important to use scales that measure behavioral or physiological indicators of pain.


Indirect Pain measurement 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alaa Abd-Elsayed
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ravi Grandhi
    • 2
  • Maxim Eckmann
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public HealthMadisonUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiologyMaimonides Medical CenterBrooklynUSA
  3. 3.Interventional Pain TherapySt. Lukes Baptist HospitalSan AntonioUSA
  4. 4.Department of AnesthesiologyUT Health San AntonioSan AntonioUSA

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