Pain pp 1219-1222 | Cite as


  • Andrew Wendahl
  • Ghassan Kanazi
  • Alaa Abd-ElsayedEmail author


Scleroderma or systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare chronic disorder characterized by diffuse fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. It is an acquired rheumatic disease of unknown cause. The disease symptoms usually appear in the third to fifth decade of life with women affected two to three times as frequently as men. Two forms of scleroderma are generally recognized: limited (80%) and diffuse (20%). Presented are basic histology, clinical findings, diagnostics, and treatment of scleroderma.


Scleroderma Systemic sclerosis Localized scleroderma Systemic scleroderma Limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (CREST Syndrome) Diffuse cutaneous systemic scleroderma 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew Wendahl
    • 1
  • Ghassan Kanazi
    • 2
  • Alaa Abd-Elsayed
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public HealthMadisonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Anesthesiology and Pain ManagementAmerican University of BeirutBeirutLebanon

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