Pain pp 1197-1199 | Cite as


  • Alaa Abd-ElsayedEmail author
  • Ravi Grandhi
  • Douglas Bacon


Pain research has several challenges including confounding variables such as psychological disorders, dementia and other comorbidities in patients. The use of pain scores is not consistently a reliable measure as the primary outcome in studies. There is also the challenges of long term follow up.


Pain Research Challenges 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public HealthMadisonUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiologyMaimonides Medical CenterBrooklynUSA
  3. 3.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity of MississippiJacksonUSA

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