Pain pp 1191-1192 | Cite as

Causes of Pain Worldwide

  • John GardnerEmail author
  • Harsh Sachdeva


Chronic pain is a global health epidemic recognized by multiple international organizations, and it poses a significant healthcare and economic burden in developed nations, middle-income, and low-income nations. Low back pain is the leading cause of chronic pain worldwide, and the prevalence of chronic pain is higher in the elderly population.


Chronic pain epidemiology Low back pain epidemiology Population with chronic pain 


  1. 1.
    Institute of Medicine of the National Academies Report. Relieving pain in America: a blueprint for transforming prevention, care, education, and research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2011.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Global Industry Analysts, Inc. Pain management: a global strategic business report; January 2011.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Health, United States. National Center for Health Statistics; 2016.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Breivik H, et al. Survey of chronic pain in Europe: prevalence, impact on daily life, and treatment. Eur J Pain. 2006 May;10(4):287–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Breivik H, et al. The individual and societal burden of chronic pain in Europe: the case for strategic prioritisation and action to improve knowledge and availability of appropriate care. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:1229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Johannes CB, et al. Prevalence of chronic pain in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2015;385(Suppl 2):S10.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Pain Medicine, Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity of Cincinnati Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.Department of Anesthesiology and Pain MedicineUniversity of Cincinnati Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA

Personalised recommendations