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Pain pp 1109-1111 | Cite as

Pain in Infants, Children, and Adolescents

  • Emad S. Attallah-Wasif
Chapter

Abstract

Pain in children is commonly undertreated. Assessment can be challenging in younger age groups. Multimodal approach to pediatric pain management leads to the best outcomes. These include medical management, psychological interventions and physical therapy. Interventional and neurosurgical modalities should be reserved to resistant cases.

Keywords

Pain Infants Children Adolescents Pain assessment scales Medications Psychological Behavioral Physical therapy Interventions Neurosurgical procedures Sickle cell crisis Cystic fibrosis Cancer Developmental disabilities 

References

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    International association for the study of pain, subcommittee on taxonomy. Pain terms: a list with definitions and notes on usage. Pain. 1979;6:249–52.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schechter NL, Berde CB, Yaster M. Pain in infants, children and adolescents. 2nd ed. London: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2003.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schwaller F, Kanellopoulos AH, Fitzgerald M. The developmental emergence of differential brainstemserotonergic control of the sensory spinal cord. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):2215. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emad S. Attallah-Wasif
    • 1
  1. 1.Oklahoma Chronic Pain SpecialistsTulsaUSA

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