Pain pp 1041-1045 | Cite as

Temperature Modalities

  • Markus Jackson
  • Alaa Abd-ElsayedEmail author


Heat and cold modalities are important tools in the treatment of various types of pain. Presented are several heat and cold modalities, their mechanisms, and their uses.


Conduction Convection Conversion Hydrocollator packs Circulating water heating pads Chemical heating packs Reusable microwavable heating pads Paraffin baths Hydrotherapy Fluidotherapy Ultrasound Shortwave diathermy Microwave diathermy Icepacks and slushes Iced whirlpools Ice rubs Evaporative cooling sprays Chemical ice packs 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anesthesiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public HealthMadisonUSA

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