Heat and cold modalities are important tools in the treatment of various types of pain. Presented are several heat and cold modalities, their mechanisms, and their uses.
KeywordsConduction Convection Conversion Hydrocollator packs Circulating water heating pads Chemical heating packs Reusable microwavable heating pads Paraffin baths Hydrotherapy Fluidotherapy Ultrasound Shortwave diathermy Microwave diathermy Icepacks and slushes Iced whirlpools Ice rubs Evaporative cooling sprays Chemical ice packs
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