Pain pp 1023-1025 | Cite as

Non-pharmacologic Treatment

  • John A. SheplerEmail author
  • Tamara Chambers


Many non-pharmacologic therapies have been utilized in the treatment of acute pain. These therapies can potentially improve pain and function and avoid undesirable side effects of pharmacologic treatments. This is especially important in light of the current opioid crisis.


Non-pharmacologic therapies Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation Acupuncture Ultrasound treatment Psychological therapies Cold therapy 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public HealthMadisonUSA

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