Pain pp 1009-1011 | Cite as

Physiologic and Psychological Effects

  • Hubert CiosEmail author


Pain is often thought of as a subjective measure of discomfort. It is easy to overlook that pain often activates a cascade of real physiologic responses throughout the body that involves the central nervous system, endocrine system and renal system. The purpose of this chapter is to delineate some of these basic changes.


Pain Neuroendocrine stress response Physiologic stress response 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anesthesiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public HealthMadisonUSA

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