Advertisement

Pain pp 1009-1011 | Cite as

Physiologic and Psychological Effects

  • Hubert CiosEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Pain is often thought of as a subjective measure of discomfort. It is easy to overlook that pain often activates a cascade of real physiologic responses throughout the body that involves the central nervous system, endocrine system and renal system. The purpose of this chapter is to delineate some of these basic changes.

Keywords

Pain Neuroendocrine stress response Physiologic stress response 

References

  1. 1.
    Kolcz J. Neuroendocrine regulation of stress response in clinical models. In: Kolcz J, editor. Neuroendocrinology and behavior. Krakow: InTech; n.d.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mauricio Del Rio J, Nicoara A. Neuroendocrine stress response: implications for cardiac surgery-associated kidney injury. Rom J Anaesth Intensive Care. 2017;24(1):57–63.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Herman J, McKlveen J. Neural regulation of the stress response: glucocorticoid feedback mechanisms. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2012;45(4):292–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Herman J, McKlveen J. Regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical stress response. Compr Physiol. 2016;6(2):603–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gadek-Michalska A, Tadeusz J. Cytokines, prostaglandins and nitric oxide in the regulation of the stress-response systems. Pharmacol Rep. 2013;65:1655–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lumley M, Cohen JL. Pain and emotion: a biopsychosocial review of recent research. J Clin Psychol. 2011;67(9):942–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anesthesiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public HealthMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations