Pain pp 721-723 | Cite as

Temporomandibular Joint

  • Rany AbdallahEmail author
  • Patrick Courtright


Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) affects up to 25% of the population with a higher incidence in females. The etiology of TMD may be difficult to diagnose, and the treatment modalities will vary based on the etiology of the disorder.


Temporomandibular joint TD/TMD protocol NSAIDS Muscle relaxants Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyLewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Division of Chronic Pain, Department of AnesthesiologyLewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

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