Pain pp 633-637 | Cite as

Low Back Pain

  • Teresa M. Kusper
  • Benjamin Cantu
  • Nebojsa Nick KnezevicEmail author
  • Kenneth D. Candido


Low back pain (LBP) is a frequent complaint during physician office visits in the United States. Prevalence has been increasing in the U.S. and has become a common reason for both disability and lost work days. Spinal pain has great social, financial and health care impact. LBP arises because of an aging process, in response to an injury, or as a symptom of an underlying condition. It is broadly divided into mechanical and non-mechanical. Detailed history, and thorough physical evaluation is imperative for correct diagnosis and successful pain management. This chapter is a concise overview of prevalence, pathophysiology, risk factors, and various therapeutic options utilized for the management of low back pain.


Low back pain Spinal canal stenosis Epidural steroid injection Medial branch block Radiofrequency ablation Sacroiliac joint Neuromodulation Spinal cord stimulator Dorsal root ganglion stimulation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Teresa M. Kusper
    • 1
  • Benjamin Cantu
    • 1
  • Nebojsa Nick Knezevic
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Kenneth D. Candido
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyAdvocate Illinois Masonic Medical CenterChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Anesthesiology and SurgeryUniversity of Illinois College of MedicineChicagoUSA

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