Pain pp 595-602 | Cite as

Cranial Nerves

  • Adrian J. Maurer
  • Deepti AgarwalEmail author


The paired cranial nerves are a complex set of neural structures with a myriad of special functions. The neuroanatomy of each cranial nerve is described below, with particular attention to the anatomy relevant to pain management practice.


Cranial nerve Cranial nerves Nerve Anatomy Olfactory Optic Ophthalmic Oculomotor Trochlear Trigeminal Abducens Abducent Facial Vestibulocochlear Glossopharyngeal Vagus Vagal Accessory Hypoglossal 


  1. 1.
    Patestas MA, Gartner LP. A textbook of neuroanatomy. Hoboken: Wiley; 2013. p. 253–354.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brodal P. The central nervous system: structure and function. New York: Oxford University Press; 2016. p. 391–409.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Craven J. Anatomy of the cranial nerves. Anaesth Intensive Care Med. 2010;11(12):529–34.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fix JD. Neuroanatomy. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008. p. 149–90.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Monkhouse S. Cranial nerves: functional anatomy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2005. p. 1–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyAdvocate Illinois Masonic Medical CenterChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations