Pain pp 53-55 | Cite as

Development of Pain Behavior in the Fetus and Newborn

  • Cody M. Koress
  • Mark R. Jones
  • Alan David KayeEmail author


Patients have the right to analgesia regardless of age. That right should be recognized and guaranteed by healthcare providers. The fetus and newborn cannot, however, express the need for analgesia. It is the clinician’s job to accurately assess surrogate measures of pain and deliver the appropriate analgesic intervention. The development of fetal surgery, increasing awareness of painful procedures in the perinatal period, and lasting neurological effects have raised the issue of neonatal and fetal pain management. Data from numerous studies have demonstrated that untreated or inadequately treated pain may cause altered long-term pain and somatosensory response in neonates.


Neonatal pain Fetal pain Analgesia Sensorineural development 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cody M. Koress
    • 1
  • Mark R. Jones
    • 2
  • Alan David Kaye
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyLouisiana State University Health Sciences Center School of MedicineNew OrleansUSA
  2. 2.Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain MedicineHarvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical CenterBostonUSA

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