Aggregation-Induced Emission on Supramolecular Coordination Complexes Platforms
In this chapter, we introduce the marriage between aggregation-induced emission and supramolecular coordination complexes, in which the two concepts melt into one that enables a new kind of light-emitting metal-organic materials based on discrete metallacycles and metallacages. On these platforms, influences of factors including geometrical, shape, anion, and nanoconfinement effects on material photophysics have all been well addressed. Therefore, promising applications such as sensors for nitroaromatics, heparin and amino acids, agents for cell imaging and theranostics, and light-emitting supramolecular polymers or biohybrid metal-organic materials with responsive fluorescence, have already been achieved. We believe that the emerging platform highlighted in this chapter not only provides insight into the understanding and application of aggregation-induced emission, but also serves as a foundation for light-emitting metal-organic materials.
KeywordsAggregation-induced emission Tetraphenylethylene Supramolecular coordination complexes Fluorescence Metal-organic materials
We are very grateful to Professors Ben Zhong Tang and Youhong Tang for the kind invitation and guidance. We are also very thankful to Professor Peter J. Stang for his enormous help, support, and encouragement. Dr. Ye Tian, Dr. Guocan Yu, and Mr. Zhixuan Zhou are greatly acknowledged for their help on the preparation of this chapter. M.Z. is thankful for startup funds from Xi’an Jiaotong University and National Program for Thousand Young Talents Program. F.H. thanks the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21434005, 91527301, 21620102006) for financial support.
- 16.Luo J, Xie Z, Lam JWY, Cheng L, Chen H, Qiu C, Kwok HS, Zhan X, Liu Y, Zhu D, Tang BZ (2001) Aggregation-induced emission of 1-methyl-1,2,3,4,5-pentaphenylsilole. Chem Commun (18):1740–1741. https://doi.org/10.1039/B105159H
- 25.Wei Z, Gu Z-Y, Arvapally RK, Chen Jr Y-P, McDougald RN, Ivy JF, Yakovenko AA, Feng D, Omary MA, Zhou H-C (2014) Rigidifying fluorescent linkers by metal-organic framework formation for fluorescence blue shift and quantum yield enhancement. J Am Chem Soc 136:8269–8276. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja5006866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 26.Zhang M, Feng G, Song Z, Zhou Y-P, Chao H-Y, Yuan D, Tan TTY, Guo Z, Hu Z, Tang BZ, Liu B, Zhao D (2014) Two-dimensional metal-organic framework with wide channels and responsive turn-on fluorescence for the chemical sensing of volatile organic compounds. J Am Chem Soc 136:7241–7244. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja502643pCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 27.Gui S, Huang Y, Hu F, Jin Y, Zhang G, Yan L, Zhang D, Zhao R (2015) Fluorescence turn-on chemosensor for highly selective and sensitive detection and bioimaging of Al(3+) in living cells based on ion-induced aggregation. Anal Chem 87:1470–1474. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac504153cCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 38.Yan X, Wang H, Hauke CE, Cook TR, Wang M, Saha ML, Zhou Z, Zhang M, Li X, Huang F, Stang PJ (2015) A suite of tetraphenylethylene-based discrete organoplatinum(II) metallacycles: controllable structure and stoichiometry, aggregation-induced emission, and nitroaromatics sensing. J Am Chem Soc 137:15276–15286. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.5b10130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 39.Yan X, Wang M, Cook TR, Zhang M, Saha ML, Zhou Z, Li X, Huang F, Stang PJ (2016) Light-emitting superstructures with anion effect: coordination-driven self-assembly of pure tetraphenylethylene metallacycles and metallacages. J Am Chem Soc 138:4580–4588. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.6b00846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 41.Chen L-J, Ren Y-Y, Wu N-W, Sun B, Ma J-Q, Zhang L, Tan H, Liu M, Li X, Yang H-B (2015) Hierarchical self-assembly of discrete organoplatinum(II) metallacycles with polysaccharide via electrostatic interactions and their application for heparin detection. J Am Chem Soc 137:11725–11733. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.5b06565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 43.Zhou Z, Yan X, Cook TR, Saha ML, Stang PJ (2016) Engineering functionalization in a supramolecular polymer: hierarchical self-organization of triply orthogonal non-covalent interactions on a supramolecular coordination complex platform. J Am Chem Soc 138:806–809. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.5b12986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 49.Yu G, Cook TR, Li Y, Yan X, Wu D, Shao L, Shen J, Tang G, Huang F, Chen X, Stang PJ (2016) Tetraphenylethene-based highly emissive metallacage as a component of theranostic supramolecular nanoparticles. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113:13720–13725. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1616836113CrossRefGoogle Scholar