AIE Luminogens for Three-Photon Fluorescence Bioimaging

  • Dan Wang
  • Jun QianEmail author


Aggregation-induced emission luminogens (AIEgens) have received intense scientific attention for biomedical applications from molecular sensing through cellular imaging to cancer diagnosis. Compared with conventional one-photon or two-photon fluorescence imaging technologies, three-photon fluorescence microscopy (3PFM) is more powerful with higher resolution and deeper tissue penetration. 3PFM can dramatically reduce the out-of-focus fluorescence in regions out of the focal plane, and allow a wide variety of existing AIEgens to be excited at the 1000–1700 nm region with less photon attenuation caused by tissue scattering. In this chapter, a brief introduction on the concepts of AIEgens and 3PFM was given, followed by presenting a focused overview on their current applications for fluorescence imaging in cells, zebrafish embryos, and mice. Some insights on the challenges and opportunities in this important field were also discussed.


AIE luminogens Nanoparticles Three-photon Bioimaging Second near-infrared window In vivo 



This work was partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61735016), the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (LR17F050001), and the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program; 2013CB834704).


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, College of Chemical EngineeringBeijing University of Chemical TechnologyBeijingChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentations, Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, College of Optical Science and EngineeringZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina

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