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Introduction: Low-Temperature Fuel Cells

  • T. W. Napporn
  • A. Mokrini
  • F. J. Rodríguez-Varela
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter describes the reactions occurring in low-temperature fuel cells, fuelled with from the most common H2, to several organic molecules. The differences in the complexity of the anode reactions and their effect on the energy that may be generated from the fuel cells are discussed. It is established that, even though H2/O2 fuel cells are the most performing in terms of power density for large-demand systems, the use of liquid fuels is advantageous for several low-power applications. The performance of nanostructured anode and cathode catalysts in complete fuel cell systems is also covered. It is indicated that in alkaline media, some non-Pt nanocatalysts have a high catalytic activity, particularly for the ORR. Even more, the recent advances in polymer electrolyte membranes are shown, from the widely used commercial Nafion®, to the more recently developed anionic polymers for anion exchange membrane fuel cells. It is concluded that compatibility of composite and blend materials with the host ionomer is critical for the development of stable low-temperature fuel cells.

Keywords

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) Anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFC) Perfluorosulfonic-acid membranes (PFSA) Direct methanol AEMFCs (DM-AEMFCs) Direct ethanol AEMFCs (DE-AEMFCs) Direct ethylene Glycol AEMFCs (DEG-AEMFCs) Direct glycerol AEMFCs (DG-AEMFCs) Non-platinum group metal (PGM) Perfluorinated PEMs Nafion® membranes Partially fluorinated PEMs Hydrocarbon PEMs Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) Hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) Tafel reaction Heyrovsky reaction Volmer reaction Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) Rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) Koutecky–Levich plots 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. W. Napporn
    • 1
  • A. Mokrini
    • 2
  • F. J. Rodríguez-Varela
    • 3
  1. 1.Université de Poitiers, IC2MP UMR-CNRS 7285Poitiers Cedex 9France
  2. 2.NRC Automotive and Surface Transportation Research CenterBouchervilleCanada
  3. 3.Sustentabilidad de los Recursos Naturales y Energía, Cinvestav Unidad SaltilloRamos ArizpeMexico

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