A Smart Decentralized Vehicle-to-Grid Scheme for Primary Frequency Control

  • Hamidreza Keshavarz
  • Mohammad MohammadiEmail author
Part of the Studies in Systems, Decision and Control book series (SSDC, volume 186)


Nowadays renewable energy sources (RESs) are incrementally penetrated in power systems. Due to the intermittent nature of the RES production, more energy storage systems for power system stability are needed. The existing potentials of electric vehicles’ (EVs) batteries for storing energy to provide regulation services in power systems (vehicle to grid (V2G)) have recently been considered. In this chapter, a smart decentralized V2G control scheme based on droop control is proposed to participate plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) in primary frequency control (PFC). The proposed scheme satisfies the primary objectives of the V2G control which includes scheduled charging, preventing the EV battery from overcharging and overdischarging, and as much as possible use of the maximum capacity of the PEV in the PFC. Simulations are implemented on a sample power system in which the RESs supply a significant portion of the power production. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated in the presence of different loads.


Primary frequency control (PFC) Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) Decentralized V2G control State of charge (SOC) Scheduled charging 



Real time


Plug-in time of the EV (h)


Plug-out time of the EV (h)


Real-time state of charge of the EV battery


Minimum state of charge of the EV battery


Maximum state of charge of the EV battery


Initial state of charge of the EV battery


Desired state of charge of the EV battery


State of charge at the plug-out time of the EV battery


Rated capacity of the EV battery (kWh)


Maximum power limit of the EV battery charger


V2G gain


Charging V2G gain


Discharging V2G gain


Maximum V2G gain


  1. 1.
    Kundur, P., Balu, N. J., & Lauby, M. G. (1994). Power system stability and control (Vol. 7). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chowdhury, S., & Crossley, P. (2009). Microgrids and active distribution networks. Stevenage: The Institution of Engineering and Technology.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lu, C.-F., Liu, C.-C., & Wu, C.-J. (1995). Effect of battery energy storage system on load frequency control considering governor deadband and generation rate constraint. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 10(3), 555–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lopes, J. A. P., Moreira, C. L., & Madureira, A. G. (2006). Defining control strategies for micro grids islanded operation. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 21(2), 916–924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wu, D., Tang, F., Dragicevic, T., Vasquez, J. C., & Guerrero, J. M. (2014). Autonomous active power control for Islanded AC microgrids with photovoltaic generation and energy storage system. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 29(4), 882–892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mahmood, H., Michaelson, D., & Jiang, J. (2015). Decentralized power management of a PV/battery hybrid unit in a droop-controlled Islanded microgrid. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 30(12), 7215–7229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tang, X., Hu, X., Li, N., Deng, W., & Zhang, G. (2016). A novel frequency and voltage control method for Islanded microgrid based on multienergy storages. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 7(1), 410–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Karimi, Y., Oraee, H., Golsorkhi, M. S., & Guerrero, J. M. (2017). Decentralized method for load sharing and power management in a PV/battery hybrid source islanded microgrid. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 32(5), 3525–3535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Escudero-Garzas, J. J., Garcia-Armada, A., & Seco-Granados, G. (2012). Fair design of plug-in electric vehicles aggregator for V2G regulation. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 61(8), 3406–3419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Masuta, T., & Yokoyama, A. (2012). Supplementary load frequency control by use of a number of both electric vehicles and heat pump water heaters. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 3(3), 1253–1262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pillai, J. R., & Bak-Jensen, B. (2011). Integration of vehicle-to-grid in the Western Danish power system. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 2(1), 12–19.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Han, S., Han, S., & Sezaki, K. (2010). Development of an optimal vehicle-to-grid aggregator for frequency regulation. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 1(1), 65–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liu, H., Hu, Z., Song, Y., Wang, J., & Xie, X. (2015). Vehicle-to-grid control for supplementary frequency regulation considering charging demands. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 30(6), 3110–3119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mu, Y., Wu, J., Ekanayake, J., Jenkins, N., & Jia, H. (2013). Primary frequency response from electric vehicles in the Great Britain power system. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 4(2), 1142–1150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Almeida, P. M. R., Lopes, J. A. P., Soares, F. J., & Seca, L. (2011). Electric vehicles participating in frequency control: Operating islanded systems with large penetration of renewable power sources. 2011 IEEE Trondheim PowerTech, Trondheim, 1–6.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Izadkhast, S., Garcia-Gonzalez, P., & Frías, P. (2015). An aggregate model of plug-in electric vehicles for primary frequency control. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 30(3), 1475–1482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ota, Y., Taniguchi, H., Nakajima, T., Liyanage, K. M., Baba, J., & Yokoyama, A. (2012). Autonomous distributed V2G (Vehicle-to-Grid) satisfying scheduled charging. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 3(1), 559–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liu, H., Hu, Z., Song, Y., & Lin, J. (2013). Decentralized vehicle-to-grid control for primary frequency regulation considering charging demands. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 28(3), 3480–3489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Electrical and Computer EngineeringShiraz UniversityShirazIran

Personalised recommendations