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A Smart Decentralized Vehicle-to-Grid Scheme for Primary Frequency Control

  • Hamidreza Keshavarz
  • Mohammad MohammadiEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Studies in Systems, Decision and Control book series (SSDC, volume 186)

Abstract

Nowadays renewable energy sources (RESs) are incrementally penetrated in power systems. Due to the intermittent nature of the RES production, more energy storage systems for power system stability are needed. The existing potentials of electric vehicles’ (EVs) batteries for storing energy to provide regulation services in power systems (vehicle to grid (V2G)) have recently been considered. In this chapter, a smart decentralized V2G control scheme based on droop control is proposed to participate plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) in primary frequency control (PFC). The proposed scheme satisfies the primary objectives of the V2G control which includes scheduled charging, preventing the EV battery from overcharging and overdischarging, and as much as possible use of the maximum capacity of the PEV in the PFC. Simulations are implemented on a sample power system in which the RESs supply a significant portion of the power production. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated in the presence of different loads.

Keywords

Primary frequency control (PFC) Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) Decentralized V2G control State of charge (SOC) Scheduled charging 

Nomenclature

t

Real time

tpin

Plug-in time of the EV (h)

tpout

Plug-out time of the EV (h)

SOC

Real-time state of charge of the EV battery

SOCmin

Minimum state of charge of the EV battery

SOCmax

Maximum state of charge of the EV battery

SOCin

Initial state of charge of the EV battery

SOCdesired

Desired state of charge of the EV battery

SOCtpout

State of charge at the plug-out time of the EV battery

Er

Rated capacity of the EV battery (kWh)

Pmax

Maximum power limit of the EV battery charger

K

V2G gain

Kc

Charging V2G gain

Kd

Discharging V2G gain

Kmax

Maximum V2G gain

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Electrical and Computer EngineeringShiraz UniversityShirazIran

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