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Protection Schemes for Sustainable Microgrids

  • Ruchita Nale
  • Monalisa Biswal
  • Almoataz Y. AbdelazizEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Studies in Systems, Decision and Control book series (SSDC, volume 186)

Abstract

The significant benefits associated with sustainable microgrids have led to high efforts to expand their inclusion in the electric distribution system. Even with multiple advantages and large acknowledgement, the design, control, operation, and protection issues cannot be avoided. The dependency of transmission and distribution operators is increasing to a greater extent. The two different operating modes of microgrid are grid-connected mode and islanding mode. In both the operating modes the secure operation of protective algorithm is most desirable. In microgrid, the involvement of converter-interfaced renewable distributed generations (DGs), such as photovoltaic (PV) DGs, introduces nonlinearity. This is another major concern for the relaying system. During fault, the infeed current from DG end is very less due to which protective relay is unable to consider the situation as an abnormal phenomenon. The traditional protection schemes employed for protection of radial distribution networks may fail to operate with the inclusion of DGs. Islanding detection, relay coordination, fault detection, and fault classification are the well-known protection issues with microgrid. Hence, this chapter presents a relook to basic concepts and the importance of sustainable microgrids, and examines the envisaged protection issues and protection strategies concerned with the integration of these networks. Performance of various techniques in terms of merits and demerits has been discussed which may provide future direction for research to design a reliable protection scheme for these networks.

Keywords

Microgrid Distributed energy resources (DER) Islanding mode Grid-connected mode Fault detection Fault classification Relay coordination Wind turbines Photovoltaic DG Protective relay 

Nomenclature

AB, BC, CA

Line-to-line fault

ABG, BCG, CAG

Double line to ground fault

AG, BG, CG

Single phase to ground fault

cf

Chopping fraction

df/dt

Rate of change of frequency

f

System frequency

f(k)

Frequency at any instant k

fosc

Oscillation frequency

H

Generator inertia constant

G

Rated capacity of generator

iA, iB, iC

Currents in phases A, B, and C, respectively

I0, I1, I2

Zero sequence, positive sequence, and negative sequence current

Ih

hth harmonic component of current

n

Sampling instant

Pmismatch, Qmismatch

Active and reactive power mismatch between main grid and DG

Pload, Qload

Active and reactive power of the load

PDG, QDG

Active and reactive power generated by DG

tx

Length of measuring window

tz

Zero time or dead zone

Tvutil

Time period of grid voltage

vA, vB, vC

Voltages of phases A, B, and C, respectively

V0, V1, V2

Zero sequence, positive sequence, and negative sequence voltage

ΔPDG

Change in output power at DG side

Δωk

Error in frequency

ϕi

Phase angle of current at DG end

ϕv

Phase angle of voltage at DG end

ωk

Frequency in kth cycle

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ruchita Nale
    • 1
  • Monalisa Biswal
    • 1
  • Almoataz Y. Abdelaziz
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringNIT RaipurChhattisgarhIndia
  2. 2.Electrical Power and Machines DepartmentAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt

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