Protection Schemes for Sustainable Microgrids

  • Ruchita Nale
  • Monalisa Biswal
  • Almoataz Y. AbdelazizEmail author
Part of the Studies in Systems, Decision and Control book series (SSDC, volume 186)


The significant benefits associated with sustainable microgrids have led to high efforts to expand their inclusion in the electric distribution system. Even with multiple advantages and large acknowledgement, the design, control, operation, and protection issues cannot be avoided. The dependency of transmission and distribution operators is increasing to a greater extent. The two different operating modes of microgrid are grid-connected mode and islanding mode. In both the operating modes the secure operation of protective algorithm is most desirable. In microgrid, the involvement of converter-interfaced renewable distributed generations (DGs), such as photovoltaic (PV) DGs, introduces nonlinearity. This is another major concern for the relaying system. During fault, the infeed current from DG end is very less due to which protective relay is unable to consider the situation as an abnormal phenomenon. The traditional protection schemes employed for protection of radial distribution networks may fail to operate with the inclusion of DGs. Islanding detection, relay coordination, fault detection, and fault classification are the well-known protection issues with microgrid. Hence, this chapter presents a relook to basic concepts and the importance of sustainable microgrids, and examines the envisaged protection issues and protection strategies concerned with the integration of these networks. Performance of various techniques in terms of merits and demerits has been discussed which may provide future direction for research to design a reliable protection scheme for these networks.


Microgrid Distributed energy resources (DER) Islanding mode Grid-connected mode Fault detection Fault classification Relay coordination Wind turbines Photovoltaic DG Protective relay 



Line-to-line fault


Double line to ground fault


Single phase to ground fault


Chopping fraction


Rate of change of frequency


System frequency


Frequency at any instant k


Oscillation frequency


Generator inertia constant


Rated capacity of generator

iA, iB, iC

Currents in phases A, B, and C, respectively

I0, I1, I2

Zero sequence, positive sequence, and negative sequence current


hth harmonic component of current


Sampling instant

Pmismatch, Qmismatch

Active and reactive power mismatch between main grid and DG

Pload, Qload

Active and reactive power of the load


Active and reactive power generated by DG


Length of measuring window


Zero time or dead zone


Time period of grid voltage

vA, vB, vC

Voltages of phases A, B, and C, respectively

V0, V1, V2

Zero sequence, positive sequence, and negative sequence voltage


Change in output power at DG side


Error in frequency


Phase angle of current at DG end


Phase angle of voltage at DG end


Frequency in kth cycle


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ruchita Nale
    • 1
  • Monalisa Biswal
    • 1
  • Almoataz Y. Abdelaziz
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringNIT RaipurChhattisgarhIndia
  2. 2.Electrical Power and Machines DepartmentAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt

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