Spine Surgery pp 243-251 | Cite as

Spinal Cord Injury

  • Sandro M. KriegEmail author


Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) usually results in impairment of sensory, motor, or autonomic functions. Incidence and main origin of SCI can be country-specific and varies to some extend (Figs. 31.1 and 31.2).


  1. 1.
    Ahuja CS, Nori S, Tetreault L, Wilson J, Kwon B, Harrop J, et al. Traumatic spinal cord injury-repair and regeneration. Neurosurgery. 2017;80(3S):S9–S22. Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bracken MB. Steroids for acute spinal cord injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;1:CD001046. Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bromberg WJ, Collier BC, Diebel LN, Dwyer KM, Holevar MR, Jacobs DG, et al. Blunt cerebrovascular injury practice management guidelines: the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma. J Trauma. 2010;68(2):471–7. Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carreon LY, Dimar JR. Early versus late stabilization of spine injuries: a systematic review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36(11):E727–33. Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ditunno JF, Little JW, Tessler A, Burns AS. Spinal shock revisited: a four-phase model. Spinal Cord. 2004;42(7):383–95. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dvorak MF, Fisher CG, Fehlings MG, Rampersaud YR, Oner FC, Aarabi B, et al. The surgical approach to subaxial cervical spine injuries: an evidence-based algorithm based on the SLIC classification system. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32(23):2620–9. Scholar
  7. 7.
    El Tecle NE, Dahdaleh NS, Hitchon PW. Timing of surgery in spinal cord injury. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2016;41(16):E995–E1004. Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fehlings MG, Tetreault LA, Wilson JR, Kwon BK, Burns AS, Martin AR, et al. A clinical practice guideline for the management of acute spinal cord injury: introduction, rationale, and scope. Global Spine J. 2017;7(3 Suppl):84S–94S. Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fehlings MG, Vaccaro A, Wilson JR, Singh A, Cadotte D, Harrop JS, Aarabi B, Shaffrey C, Dvorak M, Fisher C, Arnold P, Massicotte EM, Lewis S, Rampersaud R. Early versus delayed decompression for traumatic cervical spinal cord injury: results of the Surgical Timing in Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study (STASCIS). PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e32037. Scholar
  10. 10.
    Furlan JC, Noonan V, Cadotte DW, Fehlings MG. Timing of decompressive surgery of spinal cord after traumatic spinal cord injury: an evidence-based examination of pre-clinical and clinical studies. J Neurotrauma. 2011;28(8):1371–99. Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hadley MN, Walters BC. Introduction to the guidelines for the management of acute cervical spine and spinal cord Injuries. Neurosurgery. 2013;72(Suppl 2):5–16. Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hughes M. Bowel management in spinal cord injury patients. Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 2014;27(3):113–5. Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lenehan B, Fisher CG, Vaccaro A, Fehlings M, Aarabi B, Dvorak MF. The urgency of surgical decompression in acute central cord injuries with spondylosis and without instability. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35(21 Suppl):S180–6. Scholar
  14. 14.
    Martin AR, Aleksanderek I, Fehlings MG. Diagnosis and acute management of spinal cord injury: current best practices and emerging therapies. [journal article]. Curr Trauma Rep. 2015;1(3):169–81. Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ryken TC, Hurlbert RJ, Hadley MN, Aarabi B, Dhall SS, Gelb DE, et al. The acute cardiopulmonary management of patients with cervical spinal cord injuries. Neurosurgery. 2013;72(Suppl 2):84–92. Scholar
  16. 16.
    Singh A, Tetreault L, Kalsi-Ryan S, Nouri A, Fehlings MG. Global prevalence and incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury. Clin Epidemiol. 2014;6:309–31. Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stroman PW, Wheeler-Kingshott C, Bacon M, Schwab JM, Bosma R, Brooks J, et al. The current state-of-the-art of spinal cord imaging: methods. NeuroImage. 2014;84:1070–81. Scholar
  18. 18.
    Vaccaro AR, Lehman RA Jr, Hurlbert RJ, Anderson PA, Harris M, Hedlund R, et al. A new classification of thoracolumbar injuries: the importance of injury morphology, the integrity of the posterior ligamentous complex, and neurologic status. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005;30(20):2325–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Walters BC, Hadley MN, Hurlbert RJ, Aarabi B, Dhall SS, Gelb DE, et al. Guidelines for the management of acute cervical spine and spinal cord injuries: 2013 update. Neurosurgery. 2013;60(Suppl 1):82–91. Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yue JK, Winkler EA, Rick JW, Deng H, Partow CP, Upadhyayula PS, et al. Update on critical care for acute spinal cord injury in the setting of polytrauma. Neurosurg Focus. 2017;43(5):E19. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum rechts der IsarTechnische Universität MünchenMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations