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Cave Ecology pp 309-328 | Cite as

Food Webs in Caves

  • Michael P. Venarsky
  • Brock M. Huntsman
Chapter
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 235)

Abstract

Energy (carbon) availability is considered the primary mechanism influencing both evolutionary and ecological processes in cave ecosystems, and both experimental and observational studies broadly support this hypothesis. However, we suggest that this conceptual model overlooks several factors that also influence cave community dynamics. In this chapter we explore these additional factors in two types of cave food webs, those supported by energy from detritus (dead animal or plant matter) and chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. We begin by examining the origin of each energy source and then explore what factors influence the input and/or productivity rates of each energy source, including the strength of surface connectivity, the productivity of surface habitats, and the compounds available for oxidation. We then explore how several factors are influencing cave community dynamics, including resource quantity and quality, size of resource surpluses, spatial distribution of resources, consumer-resource stoichiometry, top-down forces, and the relative harshness of certain cave environments. We hope this discussion both provides a broad overview of how food web dynamics influence cave community structure and highlights areas of future research.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Comments from Alex Huryn, Paul Cryan, Daniel Nelson, Michael Kendrick, Stuart Halse, and Oana Moldovan greatly improved this book chapter.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael P. Venarsky
    • 1
    • 2
  • Brock M. Huntsman
    • 3
  1. 1.Australian Rivers InstituteGriffith UniversityNathanAustralia
  2. 2.United States Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science CenterFort CollinsUSA
  3. 3.Division of Forestry and Natural ResourcesWest Virginia UniversityMorgantownUSA

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