The Struggle Continues: Peace and Prosperity, Democratic Values and Development in Political Party Flags
As political contexts change and develop, so too do identities and the symbols that represent them. This chapter examines how the concept the national struggle—funu—has been reimagined and reconceptualised in the post-independence state. With the struggle for self-determination over and in the absence of a common enemy in Indonesia, numerous social divisions have emerged in East Timorese society. In order to achieve national unity, a key objective of nation-building, it has been necessary to adapt the powerful tenet of funu to the post-independence state; the struggle continues, but it is now against the prevailing social, economic, and political challenges that remain. The chapter examines how the now figurative, reconceptualised struggle has been symbolically represented by political parties, created since the return to independence. It examines the discourse of democratisation and development that is used to redefine the struggle, and problematises its origins in the UN missions. A critique of Post-development theory enables a deeper understanding of the complex processes of appropriation, and how an initially foreign discourse has come to outline an independent, East Timorese nationalism.
KeywordsTimor-Leste Democratisation Development Post-development theory Electoral politics Flags
- Alkon, Cynthia, ‘The Cookie Cutter Syndrome: Legal Reform Assistance Under Post-communist Democratization Programs’, Journal of Dispute Resolution, 2 (2002), pp. 327–365.Google Scholar
- Anghie, Antony, Imperialism, Sovereignty and the Making of International Law, Vol. 37 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).Google Scholar
- Bariagaber, Assefaw, ‘United Nations Peace Operations in Africa: A Cookie-Cutter Approach?’, Journal of Third World Studies, 23.2 (2006), pp. 11–29.Google Scholar
- Beauvais, Joel C., ‘Benevolent Despotism: A Critique of UN State-Building in East Timor’, New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, 33 (2000), pp. 1101–1179.Google Scholar
- Bhabha, Homi, The Location of Culture (London: Routledge, 1994).Google Scholar
- Boutros-Ghali, Boutros, An Agenda for Democratization (New York: UN Press, 1996).Google Scholar
- Bovensiepen, Judith, ‘Opening and Closing the Land: Land and Power in the Idaté Highlands’, in Life and Land in Timor-Leste: Ethnographic Essays, ed. by Andrew McWilliam and Elizabeth Traube (Canberra: Australian National University Press, 2011), pp. 47–60.Google Scholar
- ———, ‘Visions of Prosperity and Conspiracy in Timor-Leste’, Focaal: Journal of Global and Historical Anthropology, 75 (2016), pp. 75–88.Google Scholar
- Call, Charles T., and Susan E. Cook, ‘Introduction: Postconflict Peacebuilding and Democratization’, Global Governance, 9 (2003), pp. 135–139.Google Scholar
- Cohen, Abner, Two-Dimensional Man: An Essay on the Anthropology of Power and Symbolism in Complex Society (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974).Google Scholar
- Congresso Nacional de Reconstrução de Timor-Leste (CNRT), Estatutu Partidu CNRT Nian (Dili, 29 Abril – 02 Maio 2011a).Google Scholar
- ———, Manual Polítiku Partidu CNRT ba daruak (Dili: 29–30 Abril – 02 Maio 2011b).Google Scholar
- DeShaw Rae, James, Peacebuilding and Transitional Justice in East Timor (London: First Forum Press, 2009).Google Scholar
- East Timor Law and Justice Bulletin. Available at: http://easttimorlegal.blogspot.com [accessed 31/05/2018].
- ———, Timor-Leste Anti-corruption Commission Under Way (15 February 2010). Available at: http://easttimorlegal.blogspot.com/2010/02/timor-leste-independent-anti-corruption.html [accessed 09/04/2018].
- Edelman, Marc, ‘Peasants Against Globalization’, in The Anthropology of Politics: A Reader in Ethnography, Theory and Critique, ed. by Joan Vincent (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002), pp. 409–423.Google Scholar
- Edelman, Murray, The Symbolic Uses of Politics (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1974).Google Scholar
- ———, ‘Imagining a Post-development Era’, in Power of Development, ed. by Jonathan Crush (London: Routledge, 1995), pp. 211–227.Google Scholar
- European Union, ‘Timor-Leste: Final Report—Parliamentary Election 2012, EU Election Observation Mission to Timor-Leste 2012’, Reports (2012). Available at: http://eeas.europa.eu/eueom/missions/2012/timor-leste/reports_en.htm [accessed 15/04/2018].
- Fan, Hua, ‘The Missing Link Between Self-Determination and Democracy: The Case of East Timor’, Northwestern Journal of International Human Rights, 6.1 (2007), pp. 176–195.Google Scholar
- Foucault, Michel, ‘Governmentality’, in The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality, ed. by Graham Burchell, Colin Gordon, and Peter Miller (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), pp. 87–104.Google Scholar
- Frenti-Mudança, Frente Reconstrução Nacional de Timor-Leste (Frenti-Mudança) Manual (Dili, 2012).Google Scholar
- International Crisis Group (ICG), ‘Timor-Leste’s Elections: Leaving Behind a Violent Past?’, Asia Briefing No. 134 (Dili, Jakarta, and Brussels, February 2012).Google Scholar
- Kertzer, David, Ritual, Politics and Power (London: Yale University Press, 1988).Google Scholar
- Kingsbury, Damien, ‘Democracy As Lulic?’, The Dili Weekly (16 March 2012).Google Scholar
- ———, ‘Democratic Consolidation in Timor-Leste: Achievements, Problems and Prospects’, Asian Journal of Political Science, 22.2 (2014), pp. 1–25. Google Scholar
- ———, Timor-Leste: Politics, History and Culture (New York: Routledge, 2010).Google Scholar
- Morison, Michael, ‘Democratisation and Timor Leste After UNTAET: Towards Participatory Intervention,’ Hatene kona ba Compreender Understanding Mengerti, 24.3 (2010), pp. 179–184.Google Scholar
- Niner, Sarah, ‘A Long Journey of Resistance: The Origins and Struggle of CNRT’, in Bitter Flowers, Sweet Flowers: East Timor, Indonesia and the World Community, ed. by Richard Tanter, Mark Selden, and Stephen R. Shalom (Sydney: Pluto Press, 2001), pp. 15–30.Google Scholar
- Rahnema, Majid, ‘Towards Post-development: Searching for Signposts, a New Language and New Paradigms’, in Development: Identities, Representation, Alternatives, ed. by Stuart Corbridge (London: Routledge, 2000), pp. 304–331.Google Scholar
- República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Timor-Leste Strategic Development Plan 2011–2030 (Dili, 2010), pp. 1–232.Google Scholar
- República Democrática de Timor-Leste Planning Commission, East Timor National Development Programme (Dili, May 2002).Google Scholar
- ———, ‘Resistance and the Post-liberal Peace’, Millennium—Journal of International Studies, 38.3 (2010), pp. 665–692.Google Scholar
- ———, ‘The Problem of Peace: Understanding the “Liberal Peace”,’ Conflict, Security and Development, 6.3 (2006), pp. 291–314.Google Scholar
- Sandlund, Odd Terje, et al., Assessing Environmental Needs and Priorities in East Timor: Issues and Priorities (Trondheim: United Nations Poverty Environment Initiative, February 2001).Google Scholar
- Shoesmith, Dennis, Political Parties and Groupings of Timor-Leste, 3rd edition (Australian Labor International, October 2011).Google Scholar
- Skey, Michael, National Belonging and Everyday Life: The Significance of Nationhood in an Uncertain World (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011).Google Scholar
- Smith, Anthony, ‘Timor-Leste: Strong Government, Weak State’, Southeast Asian Affairs, 2004 (2004), pp. 277–294.Google Scholar
- Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty, ‘Can the Subaltern Speak?’, in Can the Subaltern Speak? Reflections on the History of an Idea, ed. by Rosalind C. Morris (Columbia: Columbia University Press, 2010), pp. 21–78.Google Scholar
- Tanter, Richard, ‘East Timor and the Crisis of the Indonesian Intelligence State’, in Bitter Flowers, Sweet Flowers: East Timor, Indonesia and the World Community, ed. by Richard Tanter, Mark Selden, and Stephen R. Shalom (Sydney: Pluto Press, 2001), pp. 189–208.Google Scholar
- Tempo Semanal, Kombate Korupsaun iha Timor Leste (14 December 2011). Available at: http://temposemanaltimor.blogspot.co.uk/2011/12/kombate-korupsaun-iha-timor-leste.html [accessed 09/04/2018].
- Thuzar, Moe, ‘What Does It Take to Join ASEAN?’, Perspective (ISEAS), 36 (2017), pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
- United Nations Security Council, Security Council Resolution 1272 (1999). Available at: http://www.un.org/docs/scres/1999/sc99.htm [accessed 17/20/2012].
- Varhola, Christopher H., and Laura R. Varhola, ‘Avoiding the Cookie-Cutter Approach to Culture: Lessons Learned from Operations in East Africa’, Military Review, 86.6 (2006), pp. 73–78.Google Scholar
- Ziai, Aram (ed.), Exploring Post-development: Theory and Practice, Problems and Perspectives (London: Routledge, 2007).Google Scholar