• Pol MorillasEmail author
Part of the The European Union in International Affairs book series (EUIA)


This chapter brings together the empirical findings of strategy-making in the ESS and the EUGS and reads them in light of the current shape of EU integration along the lines of the new intergovernmentalism. It argues that, although post-Lisbon policy-making in external action is still “in the making”, this policy area cannot be considered as ruled by intergovernmentalism only. The HR/VP and the EEAS have shown how they can shape policy-making in external action and, through the EUGS, have brought the institutionalised intergovernmentalism of the ESS to a next level of autonomy in intergovernmentalism. The chapter also offers avenues for future research in light of the analytical and empirical findings of the book and the passage from foreign and security policy to external action.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Barcelona Centre for International Affairs (CIDOB)BarcelonaSpain

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