Advertisement

EU Strategies and Their Purposes

  • Pol Morillas
Chapter
Part of the The European Union in International Affairs book series (EUIA)

Abstract

EU strategies can be understood as documents revealing the EU’s strategic culture, as milestones for assessing the impact of the EU as a global actor and as a tool for policy-inspiration in foreign policy and external action. This chapter prioritises this third reading of EU strategies and argues that they should be considered as milestone documents informing about policy-making in these areas. The chapter locates EU strategies in the broad external action framework and reviews the various sorts of strategies produced by the EU until today. It considers that while being a coherent actor tends to reflect a preoccupation with the internal (mal)functioning of EU external action, acting strategically is considered a prerequisite for being an effective global actor.

References

  1. Andersson, J. J. (2007). The European Security Strategy and the Continuing Search for Coherence. In S. Biscop & J. J. Andersson (Eds.), The EU and the European Security Strategy. Forging a Global Europe (pp. 122–138). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Andersson, J. J., Brattberg, E., Häggqvist, M., Ojanen H., & Rhinard, M. (2011). The European Security Strategy: Reinvigorate, Revise or Reinvent (Occasional UIPapers 7). Swedish Institute of International Affairs. https://www.ui.se/globalassets/ui.se-eng/publications/ui-publications/the-european-security-strategy-reinvigorate-revise-or-reinvent-min.pdf. Accessed 18 March 2018.
  3. Aydin-Düzgit, S. (2015). Social Constructivist and Discursive Approaches to European Foreign Policy. In K. Jørgensen, A. Aarstad, E. Drieskens, K. Laatikainen, & B. Tonra (Eds.), The Sage Handbook of European Foreign Policy (pp. 137–151). London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bailes, A. J. K. (2005). The European Security Strategy. An Evolutionary History (SIPRI Policy Paper 10). Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/files/PP/SIPRIPP10.pdf. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  5. Barbé, E. (2016). La Estrategia Global de la Unión Europea: el camino del medio. Revista General de Derecho Europeo, 40, 1–10.Google Scholar
  6. Barbé, E., Costa, O., & Kissack, R. (Eds.). (2016). EU Policy Responses to a Shifting Multilateral System. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  7. Barbé, E., Herranz-Surrallés, A., & Natorski, M. (2015). Contending Metaphors of the European Union as a Global Actor. Norms and Power in the European Discourse on Multilateralism. Journal of Language and Politics, 14(1), 18–40.Google Scholar
  8. Barrinha, A. (2016). Progressive Realism and the EU’s International Actorness: Towards a Grand Strategy? Journal of European Integration, 38(4), 441–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Becher, K. (2004). Has-Been, Wannabe, or Leader: Europe’s Role in the World After the 2003 European Security Strategy. European Security, 13(4), 345–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bendiek, A. (2017). A Paradigm Shift in the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy: From Transformation to Resilience (SWP Research Paper 11). Berlin: SWP.Google Scholar
  11. Berindan, I. (2013). Not Another ‘Grand Strategy’: What Prospects for the Future European Security Strategy? European Security, 22(3), 395–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Biava, A., Drent, M., & Herd, G. (2011). Characterizing the European Union’s Strategic Culture: An Analytical Framework. Journal of Common Market Studies, 49(6), 1227–1248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Biscop, S. (2005). The European Security Strategy. A Global Agenda for Positive Power. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  14. Biscop, S. (2007). The ABC of European Union Strategy: Ambition, Benchmark, Culture (Egmont Paper 16). Egmont. https://www.ies.be/files/documents/JMCdepository/Biscop%2C%20Sven%2C%20The%20ABC%20of%20European%20Union%20Strategy%2C%20Ambition%2C%20Benchmark%2C%20Culture.pdf. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  15. Biscop, S. (2008). The European Security Strategy in Context: A Comprehensive Trend. In S. Biscop & J. J. Andersson (Eds.), The EU and the European Security Strategy. Forging a Global Europe (pp. 5–20). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Biscop, S. (2009). Odd Couple or Dynamic Duo. The EU and Strategy in Times of Crisis. European Foreign Affairs Review, 14(3), 367–384.Google Scholar
  17. Biscop, S. (2011). A New External Action Service Needs a New European Security Strategy (Security Policy Brief 29). Egmont. https://www.ies.be/files/documents/JMCdepository/Biscop,%20Sven,%20A%20New%20External%20Action%20Service%20Needs%20a%20New%20European%20Security%20Strategy.pdf. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  18. Biscop, S. (2012). EU Grand Strategy: Optimism Is Mandatory (Security Policy Brief 36). Egmont. http://www.egmontinstitute.be/content/uploads/2013/09/SPB36-Biscop.pdf?type=pdf. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  19. Biscop, S. (2015a). Peace Without Money, War Without Americans. Can European Strategy Cope? Abingdon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Biscop, S. (2015b). Global and Operational: A New Strategy for EU Foreign and Security Policy (IAI Working Papers 27). Istituto Affari Internazionali. http://www.iai.it/sites/default/files/iaiwp1527.pdf. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  21. Biscop, S. (2016a). The EU Global Strategy: Realpolitik with European Characteristics (Security Policy Brief). Egmont. http://www.egmontinstitute.be/content/uploads/2016/06/SPB75.pdf?type=pdf. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  22. Biscop, S. (2016b). Geopolitics with European Characteristics. An Essay on Pragmatic Idealism, Equality and Strategy (Egmont Paper 82). Egmont. http://www.egmontinstitute.be/content/uploads/2016/03/egmont.papers.82_online-versie.pdf?type=pdf. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  23. Biscop, S. (2016c). All or Nothing? The EU Global Strategy and Defence Policy After the Brexit. Contemporary Security Policy, 37(3), 431–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Biscop, S. (2017). A Strategy for Europe’s Neighbourhood: Keep Resilient and Carry on? (ARI 4/2017). Real Instituto Elcano. http://www.realinstitutoelcano.org/wps/portal/rielcano_en/contenido?WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/elcano/elcano_in/zonas_in/ari4-2017-biscop-strategy-europe-neighbourhood-keep-resilient-carry-on. Accessed 19 March 2018.
  25. Biscop, S., & Andersson, J. J. (2008). Introduction. In S. Biscop & J. J. Andersson (Eds.), The EU and the European Security Strategy. Forging a Global Europe (pp. 1–4). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Biscop, S., & Colemont, J. (2012). Europe, Strategy and Armed Forces. The Making of a Distinctive Power. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Biscop, S., & Coolsaet, R. (2003). The World Is the Stage: A Global Security Strategy for the European Union (Policy Papers 3). Notre Europe. http://institutdelors.eu/publications/the-world-is-the-stage-a-global-security-strategy-for-the-european-union/?lang=en. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  28. Blockmans, S., & Laatsit, M.-L. (2012). The European External Action Service: Enhancing Coherence in EU External Action? In P. J. Cardwell (Ed.), EU External Relations Law and Policy in the Post-Lisbon Era (pp. 135–159). The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press.Google Scholar
  29. Booth, K. (2005). Strategic Culture: Validity and Validation. Oxford Journal on Good Governance, 2(1), 25–28.Google Scholar
  30. Börzel, T. A., & Risse, T. (2008). Revisiting the Nature of the Beast—Politicization, European Identity, and Postfunctionalism: A Comment on Hooghe and Marks. British Journal of Political Science, 39(1), 217–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Börzel, T. A. & Risse, T. (2009). The Transformative Power of Europe: The European Union and the Diffusion of Ideas, KFG Working Paper 1. Berlin: Freie Universität.Google Scholar
  32. Brok, E., & Gresch, N. (2005). Paving the Way to a European Culture of Security. Oxford Journal on Good Governance, 2(1), 17–20.Google Scholar
  33. Cooper, R. (2003). The Breaking of Nations. Order and Chaos in the Twenty-First Century. London: Atlantic Books.Google Scholar
  34. Cornish, P., & Edwards, G. (2005). The Strategic Culture of the European Union: A Progress Report. International Affairs, 81(4), 801–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Council of the European Union. (2003). EU Strategy Against Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (15708/03). Brussels, 10 December. https://eeas.europa.eu/sites/eeas/files/st_15708_2003_init_en.pdf. Accessed 9 March 2018.
  36. Council of the European Union. (2005). The European Union Counter-Terrorism Strategy (14469/4/05). Brussels, 30 November. https://register.consilium.europa.eu/doc/srv?l=EN&f=ST%2014469%202005%20REV%204. Accessed 9 March 2018.
  37. Council of the European Union. (2006a). EU Strategy to Combat Illicit Accumulation and Trafficking of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) and Their Ammunition (5319/06). Brussels, 13 January. http://register.consilium.europa.eu/doc/srv?l=EN&f=ST%205319%202006%20INIT. Accessed 9 March 2018.
  38. Council of the European Union. (2006b). EU Strategy Against the Proliferation of WMD: Monitoring and Enhancing Consistent Implementation (16694/06). Brussels, 12 December. http://register.consilium.europa.eu/doc/srv?l=EN&f=ST%2016694%202006%20INIT. Accessed 9 March 2018.
  39. Council of the European Union. (2010). Internal Security Strategy for the European Union. Towards a European Security Model (7120/10). Brussels, 8 March. https://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/30753/qc3010313enc.pdf. Accessed 9 March 2018.
  40. Council of the European Union. (2011). Council Conclusions on the Horn of Africa—A Strategic Framework for the Horn of Africa. In 3124th Council Meeting. Brussels, 14 November. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/EN/foraff/126052.pdf. Accessed 9 March 2018.
  41. Council of the European Union. (2012a). EU Strategic Framework and Action Plan on Human Rights and Democracy (11855/12). Luxembourg, 25 June. https://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/EN/foraff/131181.pdf. Accessed 9 March 2018.
  42. Council of the European Union. (2012b). EU Drugs Strategy 2013–2020 (17547/12). Brussels, 11 December. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/30727/drugs-strategy-2013_content.pdf. Accessed 9 March 2018.
  43. Council of the European Union. (2013). A Strategic Framework for the Great Lakes Region (11396/13). Brussels, 21 June. http://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-11396-2013-INIT/en/pdf. Accessed 9 March 2018.
  44. Council of the European Union. (2014). EU Strategy on the Gulf of Guinea. Brussels, 17 March. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/28736/141576.pdf. Accessed 9 March 2018.
  45. Deighton, A., & Mauer, V (Eds.). (2006). Securing Europe? Implementing the European Security Strategy. Zürcher Beiträge zur Sicherheitspolitik 77. Centre for Security Studies. https://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/files/chathamhouse/public/Research/Europe/securingeurope1006.pdf. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  46. Dennison, S., Gowan, R., Kundnani, H., Leonard, M., & Witney, N. (2013). Why Europe Needs a New Global Strategy (Policy Brief 90). European Council on Foreign Relations. http://www.ecfr.eu/publications/summary/why_europe_needs_a_new_global_strategy302. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  47. de Vasconcelos, A. (Ed.). (2009). The European Security Strategy 2003–2008. Building on Common Interests (ISS Report 5). EU Institute for Security Studies. https://www.iss.europa.eu/sites/default/files/EUISSFiles/ISS_Report_05.pdf. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  48. Devuyst, Y. (2012). The European Council and the CFSP After the Lisbon Treaty. European Foreign Affairs Review, 17(3), 327–350.Google Scholar
  49. Dijkstra, H. (2016). Introduction: One-and-a-Half Cheers for the EU Global Strategy. Contemporary Security Policy, 37(3), 369–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Drent, M., & L. Landman. (2012). Why Europe Needs a New Security Strategy (Clingendael Policy Brief 9). The Clingendael Institute. https://www.clingendael.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/20120706_research_policybrief9_llandman_mdrent.pdf. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  51. Drent, M., & Zandee, D. (2016). European Defence: From Strategy to Delivery. Global Affairs, 2(1), 69–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Duke, S. (2017). Europe as a Stronger Global Actor. Challenges and Strategic Responses. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. EEAS. (2011). Strategy for Security and Development in the Sahel. European External Action Service. http://eeas.europa.eu/archives/docs/africa/docs/sahel_strategy_en.pdf. Accessed 9 March 2018.
  54. EEAS. (2015). The European Union in a Changing Global Environment. A More Connected, Contested and Complex World. European External Action Service. http://www.eeas.europa.eu/archives/docs/docs/strategic_review/eu-strategic-review_executive_summary_en.pdf. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  55. EEAS. (2016). Shared Vision, Common Action: A Stronger Europe. A Global Strategy for the European Union’s Foreign and Security Policy. European External Action Service. https://eeas.europa.eu/archives/docs/top_stories/pdf/eugs_review_web.pdf. Accessed 19 February 2018.
  56. European Commission. (2003). Wider-Europe Neighbourhood: A New Framework for Relations with Our Eastern and Southern Neighbours (COM(2003)320). Brussels, 11 March. http://eeas.europa.eu/archives/docs/enp/pdf/pdf/com03_104_en.pdf. Accessed 9 March 2018.
  57. European Commission. (2004). Communication from the Commission ‐ European Neighbourhood Policy Strategy Paper (COM(2004)373). Brussels, 12 May. https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/sites/near/files/2004_communication_from_the_commission_-_european_neighbourhood_policy_-_strategy_paper.pdf. Accessed 9 March 2018.
  58. European Commission. (2006). Communication from the Commission—Strategy for Africa: An EU Regional Political Partnership for Peace, Security and Development in the Horn of Africa (COM(2006)601). Brussels, 20 October. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex:52006DC0601. Accessed 9 March 2018.
  59. European Commission. (2007). Communication from the Commission—A Strategy for a Stronger and More Competitive European Defence Industry. (COM(2007)764). Brussels, 5 December. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex:52007DC0764. Accessed 9 March 2018.
  60. European Commission. (2010). The EU Internal Security Strategy in Action: Five Steps Towards a More Secure Europe (COM(2010)673). Brussels, 22 November. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=LEGISSUM:jl0050. Accessed 9 March 2018.
  61. European Commission. (2015a). European Agenda on Security (COM(2015)185). Brussels, 28 April. https://www.cepol.europa.eu/sites/default/files/european-agenda-security.pdf. Accessed 9 March 2018.
  62. European Commission. (2015b). Trade for All. Towards a More Responsible Trade and Investment Policy (COM(2015)497). Brussels, 14 October. http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2015/october/tradoc_153846.pdf. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  63. European Commission and High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. (2011). A New Response to a Changing Neighbourhood: A Review of European Neighbourhood Policy (COM(2011)303). Brussels, 25 May. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52011DC0303. Accessed 9 March 2018.
  64. European Commission and High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. (2013a). Cybersecurity Strategy of the European Union: An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace (JOIN(2013)1), Brussels, 7 February. https://eeas.europa.eu/archives/docs/policies/eu-cyber-security/cybsec_comm_en.pdf. Accessed 9 March 2018.
  65. European Commission and High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. (2013b). A Strategic Framework for the Great Lakes Region (JOIN(2013)23). Brussels, 19 June. http://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-11396-2013-INIT/en/pdf. Accessed 9 March 2018.
  66. European Commission and High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. (2013c). An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace: Cybersecurity Strategy of the European Union (JOIN(2013)1). Brussels, 7 February. https://eeas.europa.eu/archives/docs/policies/eu-cyber-security/cybsec_comm_en.pdf. Accessed 9 March 2018.
  67. European Commission and High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. (2014). For an Open and Secure Global Maritime Domain: Elements for a European Union Maritime Security Strategy (JOIN(2014)9). Brussels, 6 March. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52014JC0009. Accessed 9 March 2018.
  68. European Commission and High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. (2015). Review of the European Neighbourhood Policy (JOIN(2015)50). Brussels, 18 November. https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/sites/near/files/neighbourhood/pdf/key-documents/151118_joint-communication_review-of-the-enp_en.pdf. Accessed 9 March 2018.
  69. European Commission and High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. (2016). Joint Framework on Countering Hybrid Threats a European Union Response (JOIN(2016)18). Brussels, 6 April. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52016JC0018. Accessed 19 March 2018.
  70. European Council. (2003). A Secure Europe in a Better World. European Security Strategy. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/documents-publications/publications/european-security-strategy-secure-europe-better-world/. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  71. European Council. (2008). Report on the Implementation of the European Security Strategy. Providing Security in a Changing World (S407/08). Brussels, 11 December. https://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/reports/104630.pdf. Accessed 19 February 2017.
  72. Grabbe, H. (2006). The EU’s Transformative Power: Europeanization Through Conditionality in Central and Eastern Europe. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Gray, C. S. (1999). Strategic Culture as Context: The First Generation of Theory Strikes Back. Review of International Studies, 25(1), 49–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Grevi, G. (2004). European Security: No Strategy Without Politics. Idea 4. European Policy Centre. https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/10842/doc_10873_290_en.pdf. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  75. Grevi, G. (2016). A Global Strategy for a Soul-Searching European Union (Discussion Paper). European Policy Centre. http://epceu.webhosting.be/documents/uploads/pub_6834_globstrat.pdf?doc_id=1758. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  76. Haine, J.-Y. (2004). Venus Without Mars: Challenges Ahead for the ESDP. In S. Biscop (Ed.), Audit of European Strategy (pp. 18–26) (Egmont Paper 3). Egmont. http://aei.pitt.edu/8986/1/ep3.pdf. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  77. Heisbourg, F. (2004). The “European Security Strategy” Is Not a Security Strategy. In S. Everts (Ed.), A European Way of War (pp. 27–40). London: Centre for European Reform.Google Scholar
  78. Heiselberg, S. (2003). Pacifism or Activism: Towards a Common Strategic Culture Within the European Security and Defence Policy (IISS Working Paper 2003/4). Institute for International Studies.Google Scholar
  79. Howorth, J. (2002). The CESDP and the Forging of a European Security Culture. Politique Europeenne, 8, 88–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Howorth, J. (2008). The European Security Strategy and Military Capacity: The First Significant Steps. In S. Biscop & J. J. Andersson (Eds.), The EU and the European Security Strategy. Forging a Global Europe (pp. 81–102). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  81. Howorth, J. (2010). The EU as a Global Actor: Grand Strategy for a Global Grand Bargain. Journal of Common Market Studies, 48(3), 455–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Howorth, J. (2011). The ‘New Faces’ of Lisbon: Assessing the Performance of Catherine Ashton and Herman van Rompuy on the Global Stage. European Foreign Affairs Review, 16(3), 303–323.Google Scholar
  83. Howorth, J. (2014). Security and Defence Policy in the European Union. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Howorth, J. (2016). EU Global Strategy in a Changing World: Brussels’ Approach to the Emerging Powers. Contemporary Security Policy, 37(3), 389–401.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13523260.2016.1238728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Istituto Affari Internazionali, Polish Institute of International Affairs, Elcano Royal Institute, Swedish Institute of International Affairs. (2013). Towards a European Global Strategy. Securing European Influence in a Changing World. European Global Strategy, Rome, Warsaw, Madrid and Stockholm. http://www.iai.it/sites/default/files/egs_report.pdf. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  86. Johnston, A. I. (1999). Strategic Cultures Revisited: A Reply to Colin Gray. International Security, 25(3), 519–523.Google Scholar
  87. Juncos, A. E. (2016). Resilience as the New EU Foreign Policy Paradigm: A Pragmatist Turn? European Security.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09662839.2016.1247809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kagan, R. (2002, June–July). Power and Weakness. Policy Review, 113.Google Scholar
  89. Kaldor, M. (Convenor) (2004). A Human Security Doctrine for Europe. The Barcelona Report of the Study Group on Europe’s Security Capabilities. CIDOB. http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/40209/1/A_human_security_doctrine_for_Europe%28author%29.pdf. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  90. Keukeleire, S., & Delreux, T. (2014). The Foreign Policy of the European Union. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Krastev, I. (2017). After Europe. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Krotz, U., & Maher, R. (2011). International Relations Theory and the Rise of European Foreign and Security Policy. World Politics, 63(3), 548–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lehne, S. (2016). The EU Global Strategy, a Triumph of Hope Over Experience. Strategic Europe. Carnegie Europe. http://carnegieeurope.eu/strategiceurope/?fa=64003. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  94. Lindley-French, J. (2002). In the Shade of Locarno? Why European Defence Is Failing. International Affairs, 78(4), 789–811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. López-Aranda, R. (2017). Una nueva estrategia exterior para la Unión Europea. Cuadernos de Estrategia, 184, 67–104. Instituto Español de Estudios Estratégicos. http://www.ieee.es/Galerias/fichero/cuadernos/CE_184.pdf. Accessed 19 March 2018.
  96. Mälksoo, M. (2016). From the ESS to the EU Global Strategy: External Policy, Internal Purpose. Contemporary Security Policy, 37(3), 374–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Marsh, S., & Rees, W. (2012). The European Union in the Security of Europe: From Cold War to Terror War. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  98. Menon, A. (2012). An EU Global Strategy: Unnecessary and Unhelpful. In K. Goldmann et al. European Global Strategy in Theory and Practice: Relevance for the EU (Occasional UIPapers 7). Swedish Institute of International Affairs. https://www.ui.se/globalassets/ui.se-eng/publications/ui-publications/european-global-strategy-in-theory-and-practice-relevance-for-the-eu.pdf. Accessed 18 March 2018.
  99. Meyer, C. (2005). European Defence: Why Institutional Socialisation Is Not Enough. Oxford Journal on Good Governance, 2(1), 51–54.Google Scholar
  100. Meyer, C. (2006). The Quest for a European Strategic Culture. Changing Norms on Security and Defence in the European Union. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Missiroli, A. (2014). EU Strategies. A Very Short Introduction. Strategy Matters. EU Key Documents 2003–2014. EU Institute for Security Studies. https://www.iss.europa.eu/sites/default/files/EUISSFiles/Strategy-matters_0.pdf. Accessed 19 March 2018.
  102. Missiroli, A. (Ed.). (2015). Towards an EU Global Strategy. Background, Process, References. Paris: EU Institute for Security Studies.Google Scholar
  103. Mitzen, J. (2015). Illusion or Intention? Talking Grand Strategy into Existence. Security Studies, 24(1), 61–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Morgan, G. (2005). The Idea of a European Superstate: Public Justification and European Integration. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Nye, J. S., Jr. (2005). Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  106. Renard, T. (2013). The EU and Its Strategic Partners: A Critical Assessment of the EU’s Strategic Partnerships. In S. Biscop & R. G. Whitman (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of European Security (pp. 302–314). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  107. Rogers, J. (2009). From ‘Civilian Power’ to ‘Global Power’: Explicating the European Union’s ‘Grand Strategy’ Through the Articulation of Discourse Theory. Journal of Common Market Studies, 47(4), 831–862.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Rynning, S. (2003). The European Union: Towards a Strategic Culture? Security Dialogue, 34(4), 479–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Rynning, S. (2005). Less May Be Better in EU Security and Defence Policy. Oxford Journal on Good Governance, 2(1), 45–50.Google Scholar
  110. Simón, L. (2013). Geopolitical Change, Grand Strategy and European Security. The EU-NATO Conundrum in Perspective. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sjursen, H. (2017). Principles in European Union Foreign Policy. In C. Hill, M. Smith and S. Vanhoonacker (Eds.), International Relations and the European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  112. Smith, K. E. (2014). European Union Foreign Policy in a Changing World. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  113. Smith, M. E. (2011). A Liberal Grand Strategy in a Realist World? Power, Purpose and the EU’s Changing Global Role. Journal of European Public Policy, 18(2), 144–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Techau, J. (2016). The EU’s New Global Strategy: Useful or Pointless? Strategic Europe. Carnegie Europe. http://carnegieeurope.eu/strategiceurope/?fa=63994. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  115. Tocci, N. (2016). The Making of the EU Global Strategy. Contemporary Security Policy, 37(3), 461–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Tocci, N. (2017a). From the European Security Strategy to the EU Global Strategy: Explaining the Journey. International Politics, 54(4), 487–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Tocci, N. (2017b). Framing the EU Global Strategy. A Stronger Europe in a Fragile World. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Toje, A. (2005). Introduction: The EU Strategic Culture. Oxford Journal on Good Governance, 2(1), 9–16.Google Scholar
  119. Toje, A. (2009). Strategic Culture as an Analytical Tool. History, Capabilities, Geopolitics and Values: The EU Example. Western Balkans Security Observer, 14, 3–23. http://www.bezbednost.org/upload/document/1001251501_western_balkans_sec.pdf. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  120. Toje, A. (2010). The EU Security Strategy Revised: Europe Hedging Its Bets. European Foreign Affairs Review, 15(2), 171–190.Google Scholar
  121. Vennesson, P. (2010). Competing Visions for the European Union Grand Strategy. European Foreign Affairs Review, 15(1), 57–75.Google Scholar
  122. Wagner, W., & Anholt, R. (2016). Resilience as the EU Global Strategy’s New Leitmotif: Pragmatic, Problematic or Promising? Contemporary Security Policy, 37(3), 414–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. We Perfectly Know. (2016). ‘We Perfectly Know What to Work For’: The EU’s Global Strategy for Foreign and Security Policy. Editorial Comments. Common Market Law Review, 53, 1199–1208.Google Scholar
  124. Winn, N. (2013). European Union Grand Strategy and Defense: Strategy, Sovereignty, and Political Union. International Affairs Forum, 4(2), 174–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Worré, P. (2014). Annex: EU-Security Related Strategies. Strategy Matters (EU Key Documents 2003–2014). EU Institute for Security Studies. https://www.iss.europa.eu/sites/default/files/EUISSFiles/Strategy-matters_0.pdf. Accessed 19 March 2018.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Barcelona Centre for International Affairs (CIDOB)BarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations