Advertisement

Introduction: Strategy-Making in the Era of Intergovernmentalism

  • Pol Morillas
Chapter
Part of the The European Union in International Affairs book series (EUIA)

Abstract

A significant share of current theorisation efforts in European integration signals a trend towards more intergovernmentalism. External action has supposedly been no stranger to these dynamics, with member states emerging as the winners of a power contest with supranational institutions. The new intergovernmentalism has captured these developments by looking at the shape of integration since the Maastricht Treaty. Yet against this background, a closer look at the functioning of external action since the Lisbon Treaty unveils a stronger autonomy of de novo bodies such as the High Representative/Vice-president of the European Commission (HR/VP) and the (EEAS) in policy-making. This chapter introduces the analytical and empirical purposes of this book and argues that the strategy-making of the European Security Strategy (ESS) and the European Union Global Strategy (EUGS) nuances some of the central premises of an ever more intergovernmental European Union (EU).

References

  1. Allen, D. (1998). ‘Who Speaks for Europe?’ The Search for an Effective and Coherent External Policy. In J. Peterson & H. Sjursen (Eds.), A Common Foreign Policy for Europe? Competing Visions for the CFSP. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Amadio Viceré, M. G. (2016). The Roles of the President of the European Council and the High Representative in Leading EU Foreign Policy on Kosovo. Journal of European Integration, 38(5), 557–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersson, H. E. (2015). Liberal Intergovernmentalism, Spillover and Supranational Immigration Policy. Cooperation and Conflict, 51(1), 38–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bailes, A. J. K. (2005). The European Security Strategy. An Evolutionary History (SIPRI Policy Paper 10). Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/files/PP/SIPRIPP10.pdf. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  5. Balfour, R., & Raik K. (2013). Equipping the European Union for the XXIst Century. National Diplomacies, the European External Action Service and the Making of EU Foreign Policy. Finnish Institute of International Affairs, 36(1). https://www.fiia.fi/en/publication/equipping-the-european-union-for-the-21st-century. Accessed 6 March 2018.
  6. Balfour, R., Carta, C., & Raik K. (Eds.). (2015). The European External Action Service and Foreign National Ministries. Convergence or Divergence? Surrey: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  7. Berindan, I. (2013). Not Another ‘Grand Strategy’: What Prospects for the Future European Security Strategy? European Security, 22(3), 395–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bickerton, C. (2012). European Integration. From Nation-States to Member States. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bickerton, C. (2015). European Union Foreign Policy. From Effectiveness to Functionality. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  10. Bickerton, C., Hodson, D., & Puetter, U. (2015a). The New Intergovernmentalism: European Integration in the Post-Maastricht Era. Journal of Common Market Studies, 53(4), 703–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bickerton, C., Hodson, D., & Puetter, U. (2015b). The New Intergovernmentalism: States and Supranational Actors in the Post-Maastricht Era. Oxford: Oxford Scholarship Online.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Biscop, S. (2005). The European Security Strategy. A Global Agenda for Positive Power. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  13. Biscop, S. (2015). Peace Without Money, War Without Americans. Can European Strategy Cope? Abingdon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Biscop, S., & Andersson, J. J. (2008). Introduction. In S. Biscop & J. J. Andersson (Eds.), The EU and the European Security Strategy. Forging a Global Europe (pp. 1–4). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Carta, C. (2012). The European Union Diplomatic Service. Ideas, Preferences and Identities. Abingdon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Christiansen, T. (2001). The Council of Ministers: The Politics of Institutionalised Intergovernmentalism. In J. Richardson (Ed.), European Union: Power and Policy-Making (pp. 135–154). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Collier, D. (2011). Understanding Process Tracing. PS. Political Science and Politics, 44(4), 823–830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Contemporary Security Policy. (2016). Forum: The EU Global Strategy. Contemporary Security Policy, 37(3), 369–472.Google Scholar
  19. Council of the European Union. (2016a). Council Conclusions on the Global Strategy on the European Union’s Foreign and Security Policy. 3492nd Council Meeting. Luxembourg, 17 October. http://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-13202-2016-INIT/en/pdf. Accessed 19 February 2018.
  20. Council of the European Union. (2016b). Council Conclusions on Implementing the Global Strategy in the Area of Security and Defence. 3498th Council Meeting. Brussels, 14 November. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/22459/eugs-conclusions-st14149en16.pdf. Accessed 19 February 2018.
  21. Dinan, D. (2011). Governance and Institutions: Implementing the Lisbon Treaty in the Shadow of the Euro Crisis. Journal of Common Market Studies, 49(s1), 103–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Duke, S. (2017). Europe as a Stronger Global Actor. Challenges and Strategic Responses. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dür, A. (2008). Measuring Interest Group Influence in the EU: A Note on Methodology. European Union Politics, 9(4), 559–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. EEAS. (2016). Shared Vision, Common Action: A Stronger Europe. A Global Strategy for the European Union’s Foreign and Security Policy. European External Action Service. https://eeas.europa.eu/archives/docs/top_stories/pdf/eugs_review_web.pdf. Accessed 19 February 2018.
  25. EEAS. (2017). From Shared Vision to Common Action: Implementing the EU Global Strategy. Year 1. A Global Strategy for the European Union’s Foreign and Security Policy. European External Action Service. https://eeas.europa.eu/sites/eeas/files/full_brochure_year_1_0.pdf. Accessed 19 February 2017.
  26. EU Institute for Security Studies. (2016). Towards an EU Global Strategy. Consulting the Experts. EU Institute for Security Studies. https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/196719/EUGS_Expert_Opinions.pdf. Accessed 19 February 2017.
  27. European Commission and High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. (2017). A Strategic Approach to Resilience in the EU’s External Action (JOIN(2017)21). Brussels, 7 June. https://eeas.europa.eu/sites/eeas/files/join_2017_21_f1_communication_from_commission_to_inst_en_v7_p1_916039.pdf. Accessed 19 February 2017.
  28. European Council. (2008). Report on the Implementation of the European Security Strategy. Providing Security in a Changing World (S407/08). Brussels, 11 December. https://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/reports/104630.pdf. Accessed 19 February 2017.
  29. Fabbrini, S. (2015). Which European Union? Europe After the Euro Crisis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fabbrini, S., & Puetter, U. (2016). Integration Without Supranationalisation: Studying the Lead Roles of the European Council and the Council in Post-Lisbon EU Politics. Journal of European Integration, 38(5), 481–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fielding, N. (2003). Interviewing. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  32. Furness, M. (2013). Who Controls the European External Action Service? Agent Autonomy in EU External Policy. European Foreign Affairs Review, 18(1), 103–125.Google Scholar
  33. George, A. L., & McKeown, T. J. (1985). Case Studies and Theories of Organizational Decision Making. In R. F. Coulam & R. A. Smith (Eds.), Advances in Information Processing in Organizations. Greenwich: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  34. Glencross, A. (2016). The European Council and the Legitimacy Paradox of New Intergovernmentalism: Constitutional Agency Meets Politicisation. Journal of European Integration, 38(5), 497–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Grygiel, J. (2016, September-October). The Return of Europe’s Nation States: The Upside to the EU’s Crisis. Foreign Affairs, 95(5), 94–101.Google Scholar
  36. Henökl, T., & Trondal, J. (2015). Unveiling the Anatomy of Autonomy: Dissecting Actor-Level Independence in the European External Action Service. Journal of European Public Policy, 22(10), 1426–1447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Howarth, D., & Quaglia, L. (2015). The New Intergovernmentalism in Financial Regulation and European Banking Union. In C. Bickerton, D. Hodson, & U. Puetter (Eds.), The New Intergovernmentalism: States and Supranational Actors in the Post-Maastricht Era (pp. 146–164). Oxford: Oxford Scholarship Online.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Howorth, J. (2010). The Political and Security Committee: A Case Study on ‘Supra-National Inter-Governmentalism’? Les Cahiers Europeens de Sciences Po. Paris: Centre d’Etudes Européennes Sciences Po.Google Scholar
  39. Jones, E., Kelemen, D., & Meunier, S. (2015). Failing Forward? The Euro Crisis and the Incomplete Nature of European Integration. Comparative Political Studies, 49(7), 1010–1034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Keukeleire, S., & MacNaughtan, J. (2008). The Foreign Policy of the European Union. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  41. King, G., Keohane, R. O., & Verba, S. (1994). Designing Social Inquiry: Scientific Inference in Qualitative Research. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Koops, J. (2011). The European Union as an Integrative Power? Assessing the EU’s ‘Effective Multilateralism’ Towards NATO and the United Nations. Brussels: VUBPress—Brussels University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Kundnani, H. (2016). How Economic Dependence Could Undermine Europe’s Foreign Policy Coherence (Policy Brief 106). German Marshall Fund of the United States. http://www.gmfus.org/publications/how-economic-dependence-could-undermine-europes-foreign-policy-coherence. Accessed 19 February 2018.
  44. Lehne, S. (2012). The Big Three in EU Foreign Policy (Carnegie Paper). Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. http://carnegieeurope.eu/2012/07/05/big-three-in-eu-foreign-policy-pub-48759. Accessed 19 February 2018.
  45. Lehne, S. (2015). Are Prime Ministers Taking Over EU Foreign Policy? (Carnegie Paper). Carnegie Europe. http://carnegieeurope.eu/2015/02/16/are-prime-ministers-taking-over-eu-foreign-policy-pub-59070. Accessed 19 February 2018.
  46. Lequesne, C. (2015). EU Foreign Policy Through the Lens of Practice Theory: A Different Approach to the European External Action Service. Cooperation and Conflict, 50(3), 351–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mogherini, F. (2015). Remarks by the High Representative/Vice-President at the EUISS Annual Conference. EU Institute for Security Studies. Brussels, 9 October. https://europa.eu/globalstrategy/en/remarks-high-representativevice-president-federica-mogherini-euiss-annual-conference. Accessed 19 February 2018.
  48. Moravcsik, A. (2016, March-April). Review: The New Intergovernmentalism: States and Supranational Actors in the Post-Maastricht Era. Foreign Affairs, 95(2), 179.Google Scholar
  49. Morillas, P. (2011). Institutionalization or Intergovernmental Decision-Taking in Foreign Policy: The Implementation of the Lisbon Treaty. European Foreign Affairs Review, 16(2), 243–257.Google Scholar
  50. Morillas, P. (2014). Actores y Procesos en la Política Exterior y de Seguridad Común. In E. Barbé (Dir.), La Unión Europea en las Relaciones Internacionales (pp. 59–81). Barcelona: Tecnos.Google Scholar
  51. Puetter, U. (2014). The European Council and the Council: New Intergovernmentalism and Institutional Change. Oxford: Oxford Scholarship Online.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rhodes, R. A. W. (2006). Policy Network Analysis. In M. Moran, M. Rein, & R. E. Goodin (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Public Policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Schimmelfennig, F. (2015). Liberal Intergovernmentalism and the Euro Area Crisis. Journal of European Public Policy, 22(2), 175–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Schmidt, V. A. (2013). The Eurozone Crisis: A Crisis of Politics, Not Just Economics. The International Spectator, 48(3), 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Smith, M. (2015a). The European Union as an International Actor. In J. Richardson & S. Mazey (Eds.), European Union: Power and Policymaking (pp. 289–310). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. Smith, M. E. (2015b). The New Intergovernmentalism and Experiential Learning in the Common Security and Defence Policy. In C. Bickerton, D. Hodson, & U. Puetter (Eds.), The New Intergovernmentalism: States and Supranational Actors in the Post-Maastricht Era (pp. 111–128). Oxford: Oxford Scholarship Online.Google Scholar
  57. Spence, D., & Bátora, J. (2015). The European External Action Service. European Diplomacy Post-Westphalia. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. The International Spectator. (2016). Special Core on the EUGS. The International Spectator, 51(3), 1–54.Google Scholar
  59. Tocci, N. (2016). The Making of the EU Global Strategy. Contemporary Security Policy, 37(3), 461–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tocci, N. (2017a). From the European Security Strategy to the EU Global Strategy: Explaining the Journey. International Politics, 54(4), 487–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Tocci, N. (2017b). Framing the EU Global Strategy. A Stronger Europe in a Fragile World. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Torreblanca, J. I. (2014). ¿Quién Gobierna en Europa? Reconstruir la Democracia, Recuperar la Ciudadanía. Madrid: Los Libros de la Catarata.Google Scholar
  63. Tortola, P. D. (2015). Coming Full Circle: The Euro Crisis, Integration Theory and the Future of the EU. The International Spectator, 50(2), 125–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Van Evera, S. (1997). Guide to Methods for Students of Political Science. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Vanhoonacker, S., & Pomorska, K. (2013). The European External Action Service and Agenda-Setting in European Foreign Policy. Journal of European Public Policy, 20(9), 1316–1331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wallace, H. (2010). An Institutional Anatomy and Five Policy Models. In H. Wallace, M. Pollack, & A. Young (Eds.), Policy-Making in the European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Wessels, W., & Bopp, F. (2008). The Institutional Architecture of CFSP After the Lisbon Treaty—Constitutional Breakthrough or Challenges Ahead? Challenge—The Changing Landscape of European Liberty and Security (Research Paper 10).Google Scholar
  68. White, B. (2004). Foreign Policy Analysis and European Foreign Policy. In B. Tonra & T. Christiansen (Eds.), Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy (pp. 45–61). Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Young, A. R. (2010). The European Policy Process in Comparative Perspective. In H. Wallace, M. Pollack, & A. Young (Eds.), Policy-Making in the European Union (pp. 45–68). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Youngs, R. (2014). The Uncertain Legacy of Crisis. European Foreign Policy Faces the Future. Washington: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Barcelona Centre for International Affairs (CIDOB)BarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations