Advertisement

China

Water Governance Challenges in China
  • Olivia Jensen
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Water Governance: Policy and Practice book series (PSWG)

Abstract

This chapter presents the challenges to water security in China and identifies the governance reforms and policy interventions that have been introduced by the government to address these since 2000. The role of policy support for public-private partnerships (PPPs) and the distinctive characteristics of PPPs in China are highlighted, and the impact of reforms and policies on a range of water sector outcomes is considered. Significant improvements in access to safe water and sanitation have been driven by public investment and incentive mechanisms for government officials, while PPPs have largely contributed to the expansion of treatment capacity. The chapter concludes with recommendations to improve economic regulation and strengthen efficiency incentives for utilities in China.

References

  1. Bin, L. (2014). Institutional Design Considerations for Water Rights Development in China. In D. Garrick, G. Anderson, D. Connell, & P. Bin (Eds.), Federal Rivers: Managing Water in Multi-layered Political Systems. Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  2. Braadbaart, O., Zhang, M., & Yang, W. (2009). Managing Urban Wastewater in China: A Survey of Build–Operate–Transfer Contracts. Water and Environment Journal, 23(1), 46–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Browder, G. J., Xie, S., Kim, Y., Gu, L., Fan, M., & Ehrhardt, D. (2007). Stepping Up: Improving the Performance of China’s Urban Water Utilities. Washington, DC: World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen, C. (2009). Can the Pilot BOT Project Provide a Template for Future Projects? A Case Study of the Chengdu No. 6 Water Plant B Project. International Journal of Project Management, 27(6), 573–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen, C., & Messner, J. I. (2005). An Investigation of Chinese BOT Projects in Water Supply: A Comparative Perspective. Construction Management and Economics, 23(9), 913–925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dai, L. (2014). Exploring China’s Approach to Implementing ‘eco-Compensation’ Schemes: The Lake Tai Watershed as Case Study Considered Through a Legal Lens. Water International, 39(5), 755–773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Daniell, K. A., Coombes, P. J., & White, I. (2014). Politics of Innovation in Multi-level Water Governance Systems. Journal of Hydrology, 519, 2415–2435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation). (2017). Aquastat Database. Retrieved Februray 2, 2018, from www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/main/index.stm.
  9. Global Water Intelligence. (2016). Global Tariff Survey. Retrieved from https://www.globalwaterintel.com/global-water-intelligence-magazine/tariff-survey/.
  10. Global Water Intelligence. (2017). Private Sector Participation in Water. Oxford: Media Analytics.Google Scholar
  11. Jiang, Y., & Zheng, X. (2014). Private Sector Participation and Performance of Urban Water Utilities in China. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 63(1), 155–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lee, S. (2007). Public–Private Partnership in the Urban Water Sector of Shanghai. In F. Wu (Ed.), China’s Emerging Cities (pp. 62–83). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Lee, S. (2010). Development of Public Private Partnership (PPP) Projects in the Chinese Water Sector. Water Resources Management, 24(9), 1925–1945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Li, F., & Phillips, M. A. (2017). The Influence of the Regulatory Environment on Chinese Urban Water Utilities. Water Resources Management, 31, 205.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-016-1519-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Li, L., Wu, X., & Tang, Y. (2017). Adoption of Increasing Block Tariffs (IBTs) Among Urban Water Utilities in Major Cities in China. Urban Water Journal, 14(7), 661–668.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1573062X.2016.1236134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ministry of Enviroment Protection Government of China. (2011). Retrieved September 3, 2018, from http://english.mee.gov.cn/Resources/Plans/National_Fiveyear_Plan/201606/P020160601356854927248.pdf.
  17. Ministry of Environment Protection, Government of China. (2014). Report on the State of the Envionment in China. Retrieved Februray 5, 2018, from english.sepa.gov.cn/Resources/Reports/soe/.
  18. Ministry of Enviroment Protection Government of China. (2015). Report on the State of the Environment in China 2014. Retrieved February 5, 2018, from english.sepa.gov.cn/Resources/Reports/soe/.
  19. National Bureau of Statistics China. (2017). National Data. Retrieved from data.stats.gov.cn.
  20. Nitikin, D., Shen, C., Wang, Q., & Zou, H. (2012). Water Service Delivery Reform in China: Safeguarding the Interests of the Poor. Annals of Economics and Finance, 13(2), 463–487.Google Scholar
  21. Pohlner, H. (2016). Institutional Change and the Political Economy of Water Megaprojects: China’s South-North Water Transfer. Global Environmental Change, 38, 205–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. State Council, Government of China. (2016). Strategic Emerging Industry Plan and Guidance on the Development of Environmental Protection Services.Google Scholar
  23. Su, Y. (2014). Contemporary Legal Analysis of China’s Transboundary Water Regimes: International Law in Practice. Water International, 39(5), 705–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tao, T., & Xin, K. (2014). A Sustainable Plan for China’s Drinking Water. Nature, 511(7511), 527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zheng, X., Jiang, Y., & Sugden, C. (2016). People’s Republic of China: Do Private Utilities Outperform State-Run Utilities? Vol. 5. ADB East Asia Working Paper Series. ADB.Google Scholar
  26. Zhong, L. J., & Mol, A. P. (2008). Participatory Environmental Governance in China: Public Hearings on Urban Water Tariff Setting. Journal of Environmental Management, 88(4), 899–913.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zhiping, L. (2005). The Challenges of China’s Discharge Permit System and Effective Solutions. Temple Journal of Science, Technology & Environmental Law, 24, 375.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olivia Jensen
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Water Policy, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations