This chapter presents the challenges to water security in China and identifies the governance reforms and policy interventions that have been introduced by the government to address these since 2000. The role of policy support for public-private partnerships (PPPs) and the distinctive characteristics of PPPs in China are highlighted, and the impact of reforms and policies on a range of water sector outcomes is considered. Significant improvements in access to safe water and sanitation have been driven by public investment and incentive mechanisms for government officials, while PPPs have largely contributed to the expansion of treatment capacity. The chapter concludes with recommendations to improve economic regulation and strengthen efficiency incentives for utilities in China.
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