Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common and potentially fatal infection of ascitic fluid in patients with cirrhosis. It is distinguished from secondary peritonitis by the absence of an evident intra-abdominal surgically treatable source. The prevalence of SBP is 10–30% in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and ascites. Patients may present with symptoms such as abdominal pain, altered mental status, or fevers and chills. However, patients are often asymptomatic. In this chapter, we describe a case of SBP and discuss pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment options, and outcomes.
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