Extremity Compartment Syndrome
Extremity compartment syndrome is a clinical entity which develops from an increase in pressure within a confined compartment that can lead to muscle ischemia and necrosis. The fascia overlying the muscle is non-expansible, and increasing pressure in the muscle compartment results in restriction of blood flow. Extremity compartment syndrome is typically seen in the upper and lower extremity after long bone injury. Other causes are edema secondary to prolonged limb compression, injection drug abuse leading to tissue swelling and soft tissue injury, and reperfusion injury in a previously ischemic limb. It is imperative to make the diagnosis early due to the potential for limb loss. Diagnosis is based on clinical exam or measurement of compartment pressures >20 mmHg. Treatment is emergent fasciotomy, taking care that all affected compartments are released completely.
KeywordsLimb Extremity Compartment Pressure Trauma Reperfusion Ischemia Necrosis Muscle Fasciotomy
- 2.Stracciolini A, Hammerberg EM. Acute compartment syndrome of the extremities. In: Moreira ME, Bachur RG, editors. UpToDate. [Internet]. 2018 Feb 12. Retrieved from UpToDate: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-compartment-syndrome-of-the-extremities.
- 3.Urbaniak JR, Roth JH. Arterial injuries of the upper extremity. In: Boswisk J, editor. Complications in hand surgery. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1986. p. 1–18.Google Scholar