Management of VIPoma

  • Rachel E. Simpson
  • Benjamin C. JamesEmail author


VIPomas are extremely rare tumors that secrete excessive vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Symptoms include watery diarrhea, flushing, hypotension, and dehydration. Most VIPomas are sporadic but can be associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). Biochemical evaluation may show hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic acidosis. Diagnosis is confirmed with fasting VIP levels >200 pg/ml. Tumors may be localized with cross-sectional imaging with either computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). VIPomas are usually >2 cm and located in the body or tail of the pancreas. Surgical resection is indicated for isolated disease.


Vasoactive intestinal peptide Secretory diarrhea Flushing Multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 WDHA syndrome 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryIndiana UniversityIndianapolisUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of SurgeryBeth Israel Deaconess Medical CenterBostonUSA

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