Normal Brain and Gliosis

  • César R. Lacruz
  • Javier Saénz de Santamaría
  • Ricardo H. Bardales
Part of the Essentials in Cytopathology book series (EICP, volume 13)


Since recognition of the abnormal rests on a clear knowledge of the normal, a basic recognition of normal brain smear patterns is absolutely necessary for the practice of CNS intraoperative cytopathology. On the other hand, because intense reactive changes of brain tissue tend to be interpreted as a tumor, becoming familiar with the appearance of reactive gliosis in smears also is extremely important. This chapter reviews the cytomorphologic features of normal brain including white matter, gray matter, cerebellar cortex, choroid plexus, pia-arachnoid, and native pineal gland, as well as the smear pattern of reactive gliosis.


Intraoperative brain assessment Cytology Squash preparation Smear preparation Normal brain White matter Gray matter Cerebellar cortex Choroid plexus Leptomeninges Native pineal gland Gliosis Piloid gliosis Contaminants 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • César R. Lacruz
    • 1
  • Javier Saénz de Santamaría
    • 2
  • Ricardo H. Bardales
    • 3
  1. 1.Professor of PathologyComplutense University School of MedicineMadridSpain
  2. 2.Professor of PathologyUniversity Hospital Extremadura, Medical SchoolBadajozSpain
  3. 3.Pathologist, Director Ultrasound-guided Fine Needle Aspiration ServiceOutpatient Pathology Associates / Precision PathologySacramentoUSA

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