Algorithmic Approach to CNS Intraoperative Cytopathology

  • César R. Lacruz
  • Javier Saénz de Santamaría
  • Ricardo H. Bardales
Part of the Essentials in Cytopathology book series (EICP, volume 13)


The aim of CNS intraoperative cytopathology is to allow reliable intraoperative diagnoses and guidance during targeting and resecting lesions in neurosurgery. To facilitate this objective, it is advisable to use algorithms that make sample triage, smear evaluation, and general-category interpretation easier to perform. This chapter reviews the use of three simple algorithms for each of these steps, which when employed together complements each other and makes it possible to perform an adequate evaluation of the disease process.


Intraoperative brain assessment Cytology Squash preparation Smear preparation Algorithmic approach Sample triage Smear evaluation General-category interpretation 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • César R. Lacruz
    • 1
  • Javier Saénz de Santamaría
    • 2
  • Ricardo H. Bardales
    • 3
  1. 1.Professor of PathologyComplutense University School of MedicineMadridSpain
  2. 2.Professor of PathologyUniversity Hospital Extremadura, Medical SchoolBadajozSpain
  3. 3.Pathologist, Director Ultrasound-guided Fine Needle Aspiration ServiceOutpatient Pathology Associates / Precision PathologySacramentoUSA

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