Advertisement

Nerve Sheath Tumors of the Craniospinal Axis

  • César R. Lacruz
  • Javier Saénz de Santamaría
  • Ricardo H. Bardales
Chapter
Part of the Essentials in Cytopathology book series (EICP, volume 13)

Abstract

A large number of neurosurgical specimens originate outside of the central neuraxis proper from the nerve sheath cells of the cranial and spinal nerve roots, the vast majority of which are schwannomas arising in the posterior fossa and spinal canal. Specimens from this tumor are difficult to crush yielding smears with cohesive tissue fragments and few, if any, single cells. This chapter also includes the cytomorphologic features and differential diagnosis of melanotic schwannoma, neurofibroma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, and ganglioneuroma.

Keywords

Intraoperative brain assessment Cytology Squash technique Smear technique Schwannoma Cellular schwannoma Melanotic schwannoma Neurofibroma MPNST Ganglioneuroma Neurofibromatosis type 1 Neurofibromatosis type 2 Schwannomatosis Carney complex 

Suggested Reading

  1. Azarpira N, Torabineghad S, Sepidbakht S, Rakei M, Bagheri MH. Cytologic findings in pigmented melanotic schwannoma. A case report. Acta Cytol. 2009;53:113–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Carney JA. Psammomatous melanotic schwannoma. A distinctive heritable tumor with special associations, including cardiac myxoma and the Cushing syndrome. Am J Surg Pathol. 1990;14:206–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cleven AH, Al Sannaa GA, Briaire-de Bruijn I, Ingram DR, et al. Loss of H3K27 tri-methylation is a diagnostic marker for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and an indicator for an inferior survival. Mod Pathol. 2016;29:582–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dim DC, Nugent SL, Peng HQ. Ganglioneuroma presenting as a paraesophageal mass lesion diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology: a case report. Acta Cytol. 2010;54:321–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dodd LG, Marom EM, Dash RC, McLendom RE. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of “ancient” schwannoma. Diagn Cytopathol. 1999;20:307–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Domanski HA. Fine-needle aspiration of ganglioneuroma. Diagn Cytopathol. 2005;32:363–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gandolfi A, Tedeschi F, Brizzi R. The squash-smear technique in the diagnosis of spinal cord neurinomas. Report of three cases. Acta Cytol. 1983;27:273–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Jiménez-Heffernan JA, López-Ferrer P, Vicandi B, Hardisson D, Gamallo C, Viguer JM. Cytologic features of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. Acta Cytol. 1999;43:175–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Karamchandani JR, Nielsen TO, van de Rijn M, West RB. Sox10 and S100 in the diagnosis of soft-tissue neoplasms. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2012;20:445–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Klijanienko J, Caillaud JM, Legacé R. Cytohistologic correlations in schwannomas (neurilemmomas) including “ancient”, cellular, and epithelioid variants. Diagn Cytopathol. 2006;34:517–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Klijanienko J, Caillaud JM, Lagacé R, Vielh P. Cytohistologic correlations of 24 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) in 17 patients: the Institut Curie experience. Diagn Cytopathol. 2002;27:103–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kobayashi S. Meningioma, neurilemmoma and astrocytoma specimens obtained with the squash method for diagnosis. Acta Cytol. 1993;37:913–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Laforga JB. Cellular schwannoma: report of a case diagnosed intraoperatively with the aid of cytologic imprints. Diagn Cytopathol. 2003;29:95–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lee W, Teckie S, Wiesner T, Ran L, et al. PRC2 is recurrently inactivated through EED or SUZ12 loss in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Nat Genet. 2014;46:1227–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Martinez-Izquierdo MA, Lopez-Soto MV, Saenz-Santamaria J, Lacruz CR. Intraoperative cytological findings in two cases of psammomatous melanotic schwannoma. Cytopathology. 2011;22:60–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Marton E, Feletti A, Orvieto E, Longatti P. Dumbbell-shaped C-2 psammomatous melanotic malignant schwannoma. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg Spine. 2007;6:591–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Miettinen MM, Antonescu CR, Fletcher CDM, Kim A, et al. Histopathologic evaluation of atypical neurofibromatous tumors and their transformation into malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in patients with neurofibromatosis 1-a consensus overview. Hum Pathol. 2017;67:1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mosunjac MB, Johnston EI, Mosunjac MI. Fine-needle aspiration cytologic diagnosis of metastatic melanotic schwannoma: familial case of a mother and daughter with Carney’s complex and literature review. Diagn Cytopathol. 2007;35:130–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nguyen GK, Johnson ES, Mielke BW. Cytology of meningiomas and neurilemomas in crush preparations. A useful adjunct to frozen sections. Acta Cytol. 1988;32:362–5.Google Scholar
  20. Pekmezci M, Reuss DE, Hirbe AC, Dahiya S, et al. Morphologic and immunohistochemical features of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and cellular schwannomas. Mod Pathol. 2015;28:187–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Prieto-Granada CN, Wiesner T, Messina JL, Jungbluth AA, Chi P, Antonescu CR. Loss of H3K27me3 expression is highly sensitive marker for sporadic and radiation-induced MPNST. Am J Surg Pathol. 2016;40:479–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sola-Pérez J, Pérez-Guillermo M, Bas-Bernal A, Giménez-Bascuñana A, Montes-Clavero C. Melanocytic schwannoma: the cytologic aspect in fine-needle aspiration cytology; report of a case located in the spinal cord. Diagn Cytopathol. 1994;11:291–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Torres-Mora J, Dry S, Li X, Binder S, Amin M, Folpe AL. Malignant melanotic schwannian tumor: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and gene expression profiling study of 40 cases, with a proposal for the reclassification of “melanotic schwannoma”. Am J Surg Pathol. 2014;38:94–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. White W, Shiu MH, Rosenblum MK, Erlandson RA, Woodruff JM. Cellular schwannoma. A clinicopathologic study of 57 patients and 58 tumors. Cancer. 1990;66:1266–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • César R. Lacruz
    • 1
  • Javier Saénz de Santamaría
    • 2
  • Ricardo H. Bardales
    • 3
  1. 1.Professor of PathologyComplutense University School of MedicineMadridSpain
  2. 2.Professor of PathologyUniversity Hospital Extremadura, Medical SchoolBadajozSpain
  3. 3.Pathologist, Director Ultrasound-guided Fine Needle Aspiration ServiceOutpatient Pathology Associates / Precision PathologySacramentoUSA

Personalised recommendations