Lymphomas and Histiocytic Tumors

  • César R. Lacruz
  • Javier Saénz de Santamaría
  • Ricardo H. Bardales
Part of the Essentials in Cytopathology book series (EICP, volume 13)


Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNLs) and histiocytic tumors are neoplasms that correspond to their nodal or systemic counterparts but lack an apparent systemic manifestation at presentation. The most common “typical” types include diffuse large B cell lymphoma and Langerhans cell histiocytosis, respectively, being the many other subtypes considerably rarer in the CNS. Given the usually deep-seated nature of these tumors and the fact that PCNSL is not considered a surgical disease, surgery is often restricted to stereotactic biopsy. Because misdiagnosis of lymphoma is one of the most common errors in frozen section evaluation, smears are recommended for the intraoperative procedure. In this chapter, the cytomorphologic features and differential diagnosis of lymphomas and histiocytic tumors arising in the CNS are discussed.


Intraoperative brain assessment Cytology Squash preparation Smear preparation Primary central nervous system lymphomas PCNLs Diffuse large B cell lymphoma MALT-lymphoma of the dura Intracranial histiocytic tumors Langerhans cell histiocytosis Eosinophilic granuloma of the bone Abt-Letterer-Siwe disease Hand-Schüller-Christian disease Non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis Rosai-Dorfman disease: Erdheim-Chester disease Juvenile xanthogranuloma Histiocytic sarcoma 

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • César R. Lacruz
    • 1
  • Javier Saénz de Santamaría
    • 2
  • Ricardo H. Bardales
    • 3
  1. 1.Professor of PathologyComplutense University School of MedicineMadridSpain
  2. 2.Professor of PathologyUniversity Hospital Extremadura, Medical SchoolBadajozSpain
  3. 3.Pathologist, Director Ultrasound-guided Fine Needle Aspiration ServiceOutpatient Pathology Associates / Precision PathologySacramentoUSA

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