Germ Cell Tumors

  • César R. Lacruz
  • Javier Saénz de Santamaría
  • Ricardo H. Bardales
Part of the Essentials in Cytopathology book series (EICP, volume 13)


CNS germ cell tumors (GCTs) are uncommon neoplasms affecting primarily children and young adults. These tumors most often arise in the midline involving the pineal and suprasellar regions, but involvement of multiple tumor sites around the third ventricle is not uncommon. Histologically, CNS GCTs represent a wide array of diseases but can be divided into two highly prognostic groups: pure germinomas and non-germinomatous or “malignant” germ cell tumors, with teratomas often considered as a separate category. Because of their different biological behavior, different prognosis, and their different therapeutic possibilities, it is advisable to differentiate among these three groups during intraoperative consultation.


Intraoperative brain assessment Cytology Squash preparation Smear preparation Intracranial germ cell tumors Germinoma Teratoma Embryonal carcinoma Yolk sac tumor Choriocarcinoma Mixed germ cell tumors Growing teratoma syndrome 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • César R. Lacruz
    • 1
  • Javier Saénz de Santamaría
    • 2
  • Ricardo H. Bardales
    • 3
  1. 1.Professor of PathologyComplutense University School of MedicineMadridSpain
  2. 2.Professor of PathologyUniversity Hospital Extremadura, Medical SchoolBadajozSpain
  3. 3.Pathologist, Director Ultrasound-guided Fine Needle Aspiration ServiceOutpatient Pathology Associates / Precision PathologySacramentoUSA

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