• César R. Lacruz
  • Javier Saénz de Santamaría
  • Ricardo H. Bardales
Part of the Essentials in Cytopathology book series (EICP, volume 13)


Meningiomas are common neoplasms (greaterthan30% of all primary CNS tumors) that may develop anywhere along the neuroaxis, particularly as intradural, extra-axial masses. Microscopically, meningiomas can have an impressive array of patterns, which are divided in three categories in the WHO 2016 classification scheme: benign (grade I), atypical (grade II), and anaplastic/malignant (grade III). Because freezing artifact produces a clear distortion of the meningothelial cells, giving rise to disturbing images that resemble both metastatic carcinoma and other aggressive neoplasms, intraoperative cytology is more accurate than frozen sections in meningioma. This chapter reviews the cytomorphologic features and differential diagnosis of the three WHO categories of meningiomas as well as of their multiple variants.


Intraoperative brain assessment Cytology Squash preparation Smear preparation Meningioma Atypical meningiomas Anaplastic meningiomas Meningothelial meningioma Fibrous meningioma Transitional meningioma Microcystic meningioma Secretory meningioma Chordoid meningioma Clear cell meningioma Rhabdoid meningioma Papillary meningioma Spinal meningioma Neurofibromatosis type 2 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • César R. Lacruz
    • 1
  • Javier Saénz de Santamaría
    • 2
  • Ricardo H. Bardales
    • 3
  1. 1.Professor of PathologyComplutense University School of MedicineMadridSpain
  2. 2.Professor of PathologyUniversity Hospital Extremadura, Medical SchoolBadajozSpain
  3. 3.Pathologist, Director Ultrasound-guided Fine Needle Aspiration ServiceOutpatient Pathology Associates / Precision PathologySacramentoUSA

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