Introduction to CNS Intraoperative Cytopathology

  • César R. Lacruz
  • Javier Saénz de Santamaría
  • Ricardo H. Bardales
Part of the Essentials in Cytopathology book series (EICP, volume 13)


Even in the current age of advanced neuroimaging and image-guided biopsies, intraoperative consultation is essential for evaluating CNS lesions and providing firm grounds for decision making and guide surgical approach. Likewise, intraoperative consultation is necessary to avoid non-diagnostic biopsies by confirming that the specimen obtained is adequate for an accurate final diagnosis. Intraoperative cytology is a rapid diagnostic modality with >90% diagnostic accuracy. This chapter reviews this topic and also includes a historical overview of the squash/smear technique and a summary of the 2016 updated WHO classification of the CNS tumors.


Intraoperative brain assessment Brain tumors Cytology Squash preparation Smear preparation Stereotactic biopsy Historical background Accuracy Brain tumor classification 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • César R. Lacruz
    • 1
  • Javier Saénz de Santamaría
    • 2
  • Ricardo H. Bardales
    • 3
  1. 1.Professor of PathologyComplutense University School of MedicineMadridSpain
  2. 2.Professor of PathologyUniversity Hospital Extremadura, Medical SchoolBadajozSpain
  3. 3.Pathologist, Director Ultrasound-guided Fine Needle Aspiration ServiceOutpatient Pathology Associates / Precision PathologySacramentoUSA

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