• Felice Galluccio


Skin ulcers are a very frequent complication of systemic sclerosis (SSc) that affect almost half of the patients, either with limited or diffuse subset of the disease. About 75% of the affected patients have their first DU episode within 5 years from their first non-Raynaud symptom. Disabling pain in patients with skin ulcers is a common concern and challenge for healthcare providers. Considerable advances have been made in the understanding of pain mechanisms with resultant new and innovative techniques to reduce discomfort and suffering. Comprehensive management and pain control are critical for these patients to improve outcomes and speed healing.


Skin ulcer Systemic sclerosis Ulcer-related pain Pain management and evaluation Subtypes of ulcer pain 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Felice Galluccio
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Rheumatology, Department of Clinical and Experimental MedicineUniversity of Firenze – Aou CareggiFirenzeItaly

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