Advertisement

Traveler’s Diarrhea

  • Alexa R. GaleEmail author
  • Matthew Wilson
Chapter

Abstract

The world is now a smaller place, where international travel is feasible and accessible to a large population. Traveler’s diarrhea (TD) is a clinical syndrome of diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, vomiting, and bloody diarrhea within 2 weeks of travel. The CDC estimates that TD affects 30–70% of travelers. There are several categories of traveler’s diarrhea: mild, moderate, severe, and persistent. The highest-risk areas for TD are Asia, the Middle East, Africa, Mexico, Central America, and South America. Bacterial pathogens are responsible for 80–90% of TD cases.

Keywords

Traveler’s diarrhea Loperamide Diarrhea Dehydration Abdominal pain Antibiotics 

References

  1. 1.
    Connor B. Travelers’ health [document on internet]. 2017 June 13 [cited 2018 January 16]. Available from https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/the-pre-travel-consultation/travelers-diarrhea.
  2. 2.
    Steffen R, Hill DR, Dupont HL. Traveler’s diarrhea. A clinical review. JAMA. 2015;313(1):71–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dupont HL, Jiang ZD, Belkind-Gerson J, Okhuysen PC, Ericsson CD, Ke S, et al. Treatment of traveler’s diarrhea: randomized trial comparing rifaximin, rifaximin plus loperamide and loperamide alone. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;5(4):451–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dupont HL, Ericsson C, Farthing M, Gorbach S, Pickering LK, Rombo L, et al. Expert review of the evidence base for self-therapy of traveler’s diarrhea. J Travel Med. 2009;16(3):161–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Riddle MS, Connor P, Fraser J, Porter CK, Swierczewski B, Hutley EJ, et al. Trial evaluating ambulatory therapy of travelers’ diarrhea (TrEAT TD) study: a randomized controlled trial comparing 3 single-dose antibiotic regimens with loperamide. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;65(12):2008–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tribble DR, Sanders JW, Pang LW, Mason C, Pitarangsi C, Bagar S, et al. Traveler’s diarrhea in Thailand: randomized, double-blind trial comparing single-dose and 3-day azithromycin- based regimens with a 3-day levofloxacin regimen. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44(3):338–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Woerther P, Andremont A, Kantele A. Travel acquired ESBL-producing enterobacteriaceae: impact of colonization at individual and community level. J Travel Med. 2017;24(1):S29–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Connor B. Travelers’ Health. 2017. Retrieved January 16, 2018, from https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/the-pre-travel-consultation/travelers-diarrhea.
  9. 9.
    Riddle MS, Connor BA, Beeching NJ, DuPont HL, Hamer DH, Kozarsky P, Libman M, Steffen R, Taylor D, Tribble DR, Vila J, Zanger P, Charles D. Ericsson; Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of travelers’ diarrhea: a graded expert panel report. J Travel Med. 2017;24(suppl_1):S63–80. https://doi-org.proxy.library.georgetown.edu/10.1093/jtm/tax026CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Georgetown University School of Medicine, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Department of Emergency MedicineWashington, DCUSA

Personalised recommendations