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Marine Mammals pp 177-217 | Cite as

Sensory Systems

  • Randall W. Davis
Chapter

Abstract

Sensory receptors are specialized cells for transducing information from an animal’s environment into nerve impulses that are transmitted to the central nervous system for processing and integration to detect external variables and initiate responses that enhance survival. Each type of receptor has its own sensory modality such as photoreception (vision), mechanoreception (hearing, pressure, vibration, orientation, and acceleration), chemoreception (taste and smell), thermoreception (temperature), electroreception (electric field), and magnetoreception (magnetic field), although not all receptor types are present in every species, and some are more highly developed (i.e., provide greater acuity) than others. Although marine mammals evolved from terrestrial ancestors, the propagation and reception of light and sound in air and water are so different that these sensory systems have been modified for either a fully aquatic (Cetacea and Sirenia) or amphibious (pinnipeds and sea otters) lifestyle. Specialized tactile hairs (vibrissae) in some marine mammals, tactile sensitivity in the forepaws of sea otters, and electroreception in at least one species of Cetacea provide additional sensory information under disphotic (twilight) or aphotic (no solar light) conditions, which characterize most of the marine environment and some freshwater habitats. In contrast, chemosensory (olfaction and gustation) ability shows a convergent, evolutionary reduction associated with the transition from a terrestrial to aquatic life. Finally, emerging evidence indicates a magnetic sensory ability in Cetacea and pinnipeds for orientation and navigation during individual dives and long-distance migrations.

Keywords

Sensory Receptor Vision Hearing Balance Touch Vibrissae Smell Taste Electroreception Magnetoreception 

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Randall W. Davis
    • 1
  1. 1.Marine BiologyTexas A&M UniversityGalvestonUSA

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