Simulation in Robotic Surgery

  • Evalyn I. George
  • Roger Smith
  • Jeffrey S. Levy
  • Timothy C. BrandEmail author
Part of the Comprehensive Healthcare Simulation book series (CHS)


Simulation is currently used in robotic-assisted surgery to advance skills development, establish credentialing guidelines, and further the field of minimally invasive surgery. As robotic-assisted surgery continues to grow, nationally installed curricula as well as rigorous and continuous training will shape the future. Robotic simulation can be as simple as a box trainer to expensive and technologically innovative virtual reality simulators.


da Vinci Robotic Simulation Virtual reality Curriculum Laparoscopic dV-Trainer RoSS RobotiX Mentor dVSS 



The authors would like to thank Jeff Berkley, PhD, founder and CEO of Mimic Technologies, for his valuable contributions to the section on the history of robotic simulation.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Evalyn I. George
    • 1
  • Roger Smith
    • 2
  • Jeffrey S. Levy
    • 3
  • Timothy C. Brand
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryMadigan Army Medical Center/Henry M. Jackson FoundationTacomaUSA
  2. 2.Florida Hospital, Nicholson CenterCelebrationUSA
  3. 3.Institute for Surgical ExcellenceNewtown SquareUSA
  4. 4.Department of UrologyMadigan Army Medical CenterTacomaUSA

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