Sacral Neuromodulation for Urinary and Fecal Incontinence
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Sacral neuromodulation (SNM), also termed sacral nerve stimulation (SNS), is an established treatment modality for patients with chronic lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD). Since the late 1980s, this therapy has evolved in an effective but mainly empirical way, and the precise mechanism of its action is still unknown. The United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the following indication for patients with chronic LUTD, refractory to appropriate conventional treatments: urge urinary incontinence, urgency-frequency syndrome and dysfunctional voiding with non-obstructive urinary retention. SNM has become an established therapy also for anorectal disorders such as faecal incontinence.
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