Advertisement

Reflective Learning, Reflective Teaching

  • Yasser El Miedany
Chapter

Abstract

Reflection is an active and aware process that can occur anytime and anywhere. It functions to help us, or our students, to recapture, relive, make sense of, think about, contextualize and evaluate an experience in order to make decisions and choices about what we have experienced, how we have experienced and what we will or will not do next. Engaging in self-reflection should involve a move from this semiconscious, informal approach to a more explicit, intentional formal approach. At the educational level, formal reflection draws on research and theory and provides guidance as well as frameworks for practice, which enables the teacher to learn from and potentially enhance their career (and consequently their awareness of the reflection process) which can be applied to any aspect of teaching. This chapter will discuss the art and science of reflection, characters of reflective learning, reflecting on one’s own practice, reflective teaching and how to become a reflective learner.

Keywords

Reflection Science of reflection Art of reflection Reflection types Reflection framework Reflection methods Learning needs 

References

  1. 1.
    Effective pedagogy, The New Zealand Curriculum. 2014. p. 34. http://nzcurriculum.tki.org.nz/The-New-Zealand-Curriculum#effective_pedagogy. Accessed on 6 Apr 2018.
  2. 2.
    Boud D, Keogh R, Walker D. Reflection: turning experience into learning. London: Kogan Page; 1985.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Johns C, Freshwater D. Transforming nursing through reflective practice. London: Blackwell Science; 1998.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Reid B. ‘But we’re doing it already!’ Exploring a response to the concept of reflective practice in order to improve its facilitation. Nurse Educ Today. 1993;13:305–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jarvis P. Reflective practice and nursing. Nurse Educ Today. 1992;12:174–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kahneman D. Thinking, fast and slow. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux; 2013.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Johnson M. The forgotten ‘R’: using reflection to speed student learning. 2017. https://matthewmjohnson.com/2017/11/30/why-your-students-should-probably-be-doing-more-reflections/. Accessed on 8th Apr 2018.
  8. 8.
    Dewey J. How we think. Boston: D.C. Heath; 1910. p. 6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schon D. The reflective practitioner: how professionals think in action. London: Temple Smith; 1983.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schon D. Educating the reflective practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 1987.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kolb DA, Fry R. Toward an applied theory of experiential learning. In: Cooper C, editor. Theories of group process. London: Wiley; 1975.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kolb DA. Experiential learning: experience as the source of learning and development. New Jersey: Prentice Hall; 1984.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pedlar M, Burgoyne J, Boydell T. A manager’s guide to self-development. 4th ed. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill; 2001.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kolb DA, Boyatzis RE. Experiential learning theory: previous research and new directions. In: Sternberg RJ, Zhang LF, editors. Perspectives on cognitive learning and thinking styles. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum; 2000.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gibbs G. Learning in doing: a guide to teaching and learning methods. London: Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development, Oxford Polytechic; 1988.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gibbs G. Learning by doing: a guide to teaching and learning. London: Brookes Oxford University; 1998.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bulman, Schultz. In: Bulman C, Schutz S, editors. Reflective practice in nursing. 4th ed. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell; 2013.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gibbs’ reflective cycle. Academic Services & Retention Team, University of Cumbria; 2016. https://my.cumbria.ac.uk/media/MyCumbria/Documents/ReflectiveCycleGibbs.pdf. Accessed on 8th Apr 2018.
  19. 19.
    Johns C. Becoming a reflective practitioner. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 2000.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rolfe G, Freshwater D, Jasper M. Critical reflection in nursing and the helping professions: a user’s guide. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan; 2001.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Maughan C, Webb J. Small group learning and assessment. 2001. Retrieved 11 Apr 2018, from the Higher Education Academy Web site: http://www.ukcle.ac.uk/resources/temp/assessment.html.
  22. 22.
    Barksby J, et al. A new model of reflection for clinical practice. Nurs Times. 2015;111(34/35):21–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Forrest MES. Learning and teaching in action. Health Inf Libr J. 2008;25:229–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hatton N, Smith D. Reflection in teacher education-towards definition and implementation. Teach Teach Educ. 1995;11(1):33–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Brockbank A, McGill I. Facilitating reflective learning in higher education. 2nd ed. Berkshire: Open University Press; 2007.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Surgenor P. Reflective practice: a practical guide. UCD teaching and learning. 2011. https://www.ucd.ie/t4cms/Reflective%20Practice.pdf.
  27. 27.
    Boyd E, Fales A. Learning: the key to learning from experience. J Humanist Psychol. 1983;23(2):99–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kember D, Kelly M. Improving teaching through action research, HERDSA Green Guide no. 14. Sydney: HERDSA; 1993.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Baumgartner LM. An update on transformational learning. New Dir Adult Contin Educ. 2001;2001:15–24.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ace.4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Biggs J, Tang C. Teaching for quality learning. Berkshire: SRHE & Open University Press; 2007.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
  32. 32.
    Craft M. Reflective writing and nursing education. J Nurs Educ. 2005;44(2):53–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Burrows DE. The nurse teacher’s role in the promotion of reflective practice. Nurse Educ Today. 1995;15(5):346–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    The NHS Knowledge and Skills Framework (NHS KSF) and the development review process, Department of Health, October 2004. Available from www.nhsemployers.org/agendaforchange.
  35. 35.
    Healthcare evaluation data system (HED). https://www.hed.nhs.uk/info/hed-system.htm.
  36. 36.
    The British Society for Rheumatology. Peer Review Guidance. https://www.rheumatology.org.uk/Portals/0/Policy/Peer%20review/Peer%20Review%20Guidance.pdf.
  37. 37.
    Huxley A. Texts & pretexts: an anthology with commentaries. https://www.goodreads.com/quotes/92753-experience-is-not-what-happens-to-a-man-it-is.
  38. 38.
    Richert AE. Teaching teachers to reflect: a consideration of program structure. J Curric Stud. 1990;22(6):309–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Durfee A. Frameworks for Reflection. Eutopia. 2018. https://www.edutopia.org/article/frameworks-reflection. Accessed on 14th Apr 2018.
  40. 40.
    Elboj C, Puigdellívol I, Soler M, Valls R. Comunidades d Aprendizaje. Transformar la educación. Barcelona: Graó; 2002.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
  42. 42.
    Halpern DF. Thought and knowledge: an Introduction to critical thinking. 5th ed. New York: Psychology Press; 2014.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Loszalka T. Learning and Instruction Section (NY) KaAMS: a PBL environment facilitating reflective thinking. 2001.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lunenberg M, Korthagen F. Experience, theory and practice wisdom in teaching and teacher education. Teach Teach. 2009;15(2):225–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hobson A. Student teachers perceptions of school-based mentoring in initial teacher training (ITT). Mentoring Tutoring Partnership Learn. 2002;10(1):5–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Jones M, Straker K. What informs mentors practice when working with trainees and newly qualified teachers? An investigation into mentors’ professional knowledge base. J Educ Teach. 2006;32(2):165–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Finlay L. Reflecting on reflective practice. PBPL CETL, Open University. [Online]. 2008. Available at http://www.open.ac.uk/opencetl/resources/pbpl-resources/finlay-l-2008-reflecting-reflective-practice-pbpl-paper-52. Accessed 15 Apr 2018.
  48. 48.
    Ixer G. There’s no such thing as reflection. Br J Soc Work. 1999;29(4):513–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    LaBoskey VK. Development of reflective practice. A study of preservice teachers. New York: Teachers College Press; 1994.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cartwright L. How consciously reflective are you? In: McGregor D, Cartwright L, editors. Developing reflective practice: a guide for beginning teachers. Berkshire: Open University Press; 2011.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mezirow J. Learning to think like an adult: core concepts of transformation theory. In: Mezirow J, et al., editors. Learning as transformation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2000. p. 3–34.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    McGregor D, Cartwright L. Developing reflective practice: a guide for beginning teachers. Berkshire: Open University Press; 2011.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bordieu P, Wacquant L. An invitation to reflexive sociology. 1st ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1992.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasser El Miedany
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.King’s College London, Darent Valley HospitalDartfordUK
  2. 2.Rheumatology and RehabilitationAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations