Other Oral Diseases

  • Ronnie Levine
  • Catherine Stillman-Lowe
Part of the BDJ Clinician’s Guides book series (BDJCG)


The fungus Candida albicans is present in most mouths as a commensal, without causing disease, but can present in various forms as an acute or chronic infection. Many cases are associated with poor oral hygiene but also poor nutrition, chronic anaemia, diabetes or altered immune states as in AIDS/HIV infection. Prevention depends on treating any systemic factors and where dentures are worn, their removal and thorough cleaning at night as well as their replacement when needed. Oral ulceration can take many innocent forms, but any persisting for more than 3 weeks require immediate investigation because of the possible risk of oral cancer. Persistent dry mouth (xerostomia) can be a distressing chronic condition, often found in those taking multiple medications, especially the elderly and diabetics. All cases require careful investigation, since some may have systemic causation.


Candida infection Oral ulceration Dry mouth 

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronnie Levine
    • 1
  • Catherine Stillman-Lowe
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Oral SurgeryUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK
  2. 2.ReadingUK

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