Optic Nerve Head Visualization

  • Akvile StoskuvieneEmail author


Since glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness, early diagnosis and detection of progression takes important place in many clinicians everyday practice. The appearance of optic nerve head is one of the glaucoma diagnostic mainstays. However, it is not always easy to asses and even to document the appearance changes, especially in unusual structure discs. Written descriptions seems to be insufficient for careful follow-up. Structural characteristics can be documented by taking photos or more sophisticated scanning imaging devices, such as confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (GDx), scanning laser polarimetry (HRT), and optical coherence tomography (OCT), that provide quantitative data. Characteristic glaucomatous changes in the ONH topography, peripapillary RNFL thickness, the ganglion cell layers thickness in the macula are discussed, as well as insight into novel imaging techniques, such as OCT-angiography, and their appliance in glaucoma are made in following chapters.


Optic nerve head visualization Optic nerve head imaging techniques Retinal nerve fiber evaluation Optic nerve head evaluation Ganglion cell layer assessment Optical coherence tomography angiography in glaucoma 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyLithuanian University of Health SciencesKaunasLithuania
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyLithuanian University of Health SciencesKaunasLithuania

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