Clinical Research and Evidence-Based Medicine

  • Dennis V. CokkinosEmail author


Clinical practice has in the last 25 years been guided by evidence-based medicine. This approach advocates the use of various levels of evidence regarding the source of medical data and classification of indications to offer guideline recommendations on how to treat patients.

The main sources are the result of randomized controlled clinical trials but also systematic reviews. Evidence-based medicine is complemented by personalized medicine, which tailors medical treatment to the individual patient, and precision medicine, which combines larger databases, aided by artificial intelligence and big data, to acquire the means to more efficiently and rapidly process the explosively increasing knowledge.


Evidence-Based Medicine Guidelines Levels of Evidence Personalized Medicine Precision Medicine Artificial Intelligence Big Data 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Heart and Vessel DepartmentBiomedical Research Foundation, Academy of Athens - Gregory SkalkeasAthensGreece

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