Advertisement

Introduction to Wireless Powered Communication Network

  • Abbas Jamalipour
  • Ying Bi
Chapter

Abstract

Wireless power transfer (WPT) plays a critical role in relaxing concerns related to limited operational lifetime of wireless networks. Different from traditional network devices, which rely on batteries for their energy need, devices in wireless powered communication networks (WPCNs) are able to scavenge energy from radio-frequency (RF) signals. As such, it eliminates the burden of battery recharging and/or replacement and hence provides networks with theoretically perpetual lifespans. However, due to the dramatic growth of wireless data traffic and the rapid movement towards the so-called Internet of Things (IoT), WPCNs are facing security and throughput challenges in which the traditional mechanisms are not sufficient to satisfy the user requirements. Its network performance is therefore compromised. In this chapter, we first provide an overview of the WPCNs by introducing the background of WPT, followed by a summary of the research conducted in the field. We then describe the physical-layer security (PLS) problem in WPCNs, including the causes and the impacts of the problem on the performance of WPCNs. At last, we close this chapter by discussing the applications of WPCNs in the IoT.

References

  1. 1.
    N. Tesla, “Method of Regulating Apparatus For Producing Currents of High Frequency,” U.S. Patent No. 568,178, September 1896.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    N. Tesla, “Apparatus for Transmitting Electrical Energy,”U.S. Patent No. 1,119,732, December 1914.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    W. C. Brown, “ Experiments Involving a Microwave Beam to Power and Position a Helicopter,” IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol. AES-5, no. 5, pp. 692–702, September 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    W. C. Brown, “ The History of Power Transmission by Radio Waves,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1230–1242, September 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    C-S. Wang, G. A. Covic, and O. H. Stielau, “Power Transfer Capability and Bifurcation Phenomena of Loosely Coupled Inductive Power Transfer Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 148–157, February 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    B. L. Cannon, J. F. Hoburg, D. D. Stancil, and S. C. Goldstein “Magnetic Resonant Coupling As a Potential Means for Wireless Power Transfer to Multiple Small Receivers,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1819–1825, July 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    X. Lu, P. Wang, D. Niyato, D. I. Kim, and Z. Han, “Wireless Charging Technologies: Fundamentals,Standards, and Network Applications,” IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 1413–1452, Second Quarter 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. D. Barman, A. W. Reza, N. Kumar, M. E. Karim, A. B. Munir, “Wireless powering by magnetic resonant coupling: Recent trends in wireless power transfer system and its applications,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 51, pp. 1525–1552, November 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    X. Lu, P. Wang, D. Niyato, and Z. Han, “Resource Allocation in Wireless Networks with RF Energy Harvesting and Transfer,” IEEE Network, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 68–75, November-December 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    H. T. Friis, “A Note on a Simple Transmission Formula,” Proceedings of the IRE, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 254–256, May 1946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    X. Lu, P. Wang, D. Niyato, D. I. Kim, and Z. Han, “Wireless Networks With RF Energy Harvesting: A Contemporary Survey,” IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 757–789, Second Quarter 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. Mishra, S. De, S. Jana, S. Basagni, K. Chowdhury, and W. Heinzelman, “Smart RF Energy Harvesting Communications: Challenges and Opportunities,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 70–78, April 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Pinuela, P. D. Mitcheson, and S. Lucyszyn, “Ambient RF Energy Harvesting in Urban and Semi-Urban Environments,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 2715–2726, July 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Ghazanfari, H. Tabassum, and E. Hossain, “Ambient RF Energy Harvesting in Ultra-Dense Small Cell Networks: Performance and Trade-offs,” IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 38–45, April 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Lee, R. Zhang, and K. Huang, “Opportunistic Wireless Energy Harvesting in Cognitive Radio Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 4788–4799, September 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. T. Hoang, D. Niyato, P. Wang, and D. I. Kim, “Opportunistic Channel Access and RF Energy Harvesting in Cognitive Radio Networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 2039–2052, November 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Powercast, [Online] Available: www.powercastco.com
  18. 18.
    I. Krikidis, S. Timotheou, S. Nikolaou, G. Zheng, D. W. K. Ng, and R. Schober, “Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer in Modern Communication Systems,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 104–110, November 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    L. R. Varshney, “Transporting Information and Energy Simultaneously,” IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT), pp. 1612–1616, July 2008.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    P. Grover and A. Sahai, “Shannon meets Tesla: Wireless information and power transfer,” IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT), June 2010, pp. 2363–2367.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. M. Fouladgar and O. Simeone, “On the Transfer of Information and Energy in Multi-User Systems,” IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 1733–1736, November 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    R. Zhang and C. K. Ho, “MIMO Broadcasting for Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 1989–2001, May 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. Bi, C. K. Ho, and R. Zhang, “Wireless Powered Communication: Opportunities and Challenges,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 117–125, April 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    X. Zhou, R. Zhang, and C. K. Ho, “Wireless Information and Power Transfer: Architecture Design and Rate-Energy Tradeoff,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 61, no. 11, pp. 4754–4767, November 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Z. Xiang and M. Tao, “Robust Beamforming for Wireless Information and Power Transmission,” IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 372–375, August 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. A. Nasir, X. Zhou, S. Durrani, and R. A. Kennedy, “Relaying Protocols for Wireless Energy Harvesting and Information Processing,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 3622–3636, July 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    H. Lee, C. Song, S-H. Choi, and I. Lee, “Outage Probability Analysis and Power Splitter Designs for SWIPT Relaying Systems with Direct Link,” IEEE Communications Letters, 2016.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    K. Huang and E. Larsson, “Simultaneous Information and Power Transfer for Broadband Wireless Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 61, no. 23, pp. 5972–5986, December 2013.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    I. Krikidis, “Simultaneous Information and Energy Transfer in Large-Scale Networks with/without Relaying,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 900–912, March 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    I. Krikidis, S. Sasaki, S. Timotheou, and Z. Ding, “A Low Complexity Antenna Switching for Joint Wireless Information and Energy Transfer in MIMO Relay Channels,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 1577–1587, May 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    C-F. Liu, M. Maso, S. Lakshminarayana, C-H. Lee, T. Q. S. Quek, “Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer Under Different CSI Acquisition Schemes,”IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 1911–1926, April 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    L. Mohjazi, I. Ahmed, S. Muhaidat, M. Dianati, and M. Al-Qutayri, “Downlink Beamforming for SWIPT Multi-User MISO Underlay Cognitive Radio Networks,” IEEE Communications Letters, 2016.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    H. Ju and R. Zhang, “Throughput Maximization in Wireless Powered Communication Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 418–428, January 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    H. Ju and R. Zhang, “Optimal Resource Allocation in Full-Duplex Wireless-Powered Communication Network,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 62, no. 10, pp. 3528–3540, October 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    X. Kang, C. K. Ho, and S. Sun, “Full-Duplex Wireless-Powered Communication Network With Energy Causality,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 5539–5551, October 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    A. Sabharwal, P. Schniter, D. Guo, D. W. Bliss, S. Rangarajan, and R. Wichman, “In-Band Full-Duplex Wireless: Challenges and Opportunities,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1637–1652, September 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    H. Ju, K. Chang, and M-S. Lee, “In-Band Full-Duplex Wireless Powered Communication Networks,” 17th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT), pp. 23–27, December 2014.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    L. Liu, R. Zhang, and K-C. Chua, “Multi-Antenna Wireless Powered Communication With Energy Beamforming,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 62, no. 12, pp. 4349–4361, December 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    G. Yang, C. K. Ho, R. Zhang, and Y. L. Guan, “Throughput Optimization for Massive MIMO Systems Powered by Wireless Energy Transfer,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 1640–1650, August 2015.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    D. Hwang, D. I. Kim, and T-J. Lee, “Throughput Maximization for Multiuser MIMO Wireless Powered Communication Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 65, no. 7, pp. 5743–5748, July 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    D. Mishra, S. De, S. Jana, S. Basagni, K. Chowdhury, and W. Heinzelman, “Smart RF Energy Harvesting Communications: Challenges and Opportunities,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 70–78, April 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Y. L. Che, L. Duan, and R. Zhang, “Spatial Throughput Maximization of Wireless Powered Communication Networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 1534–1548, August 2015.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    S. Lee and R. Zhang, “Cognitive Wireless Powered Network: Spectrum Sharing Models and Throughput Maximization,” IEEE Transactions on Cognitive Communications and Networking, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 335–346, September 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    S. S. Kalamkar, J. P. Jeyaraj, A. Banerjee, and K. Rajawat, “Resource Allocation and Fairness in Wireless Powered Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 3246–3261, August 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Q. Wu, M. Tao, D. W. K. Ng, W. Chen, and R. Schober, “Energy-Efficient Resource Allocation for Wireless Powered Communication Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 2312–2327, March 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    S. Bi, Y. Zeng, and R. Zhang, “Wireless Powered Communication Networks: An Overview,” IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 10–18, April 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    H. Ju and R. Zhang, “User Cooperation in Wireless Powered Communication Networks,” IEEE Global Communications Conference, pp. 1430–1435, December 2014.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    H. Chen, Y. Li, J. L. Rebelatto, B. F. Uchoa-Filho, and B. Vucetic, “Harvest-Then-Cooperate: Wireless-Powered Cooperative Communications,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 63, no. 7, pp. 1700–1711, April 2015.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    A. Wyner, “The wire-tap channel,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 1355–1387, Oct. 1975.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    D. Ng, E. Lo, and R. Schober, “Robust Beamforming for Secure Communication in Systems With Wireless Information and Power Transfer,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 4599–4615, Aug. 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    H. Zhang, C. Li, Y. Huang, and L. Yang, “Secure Beamforming for SWIPT in Multiuser MISO Broadcast Channel With Confidential Messages,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1347–1350, Aug. 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    H. Zhang, Y. Huang, C. Li, and L. Yang, “Secure Beamforming Design for SWIPT in MISO Broadcast Channel With Confidential Messages and External Eavesdroppers,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 7807–7819, Nov. 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    F. Zhou, Z. Li, J. Cheng, Q. Li, and J. Si, “Robust AN-Aided Beamforming and Power Splitting Design for Secure MISO Cognitive Radio With SWIPT,” arXiv, Feb. 2016. [Online]. Available: http://arxiv.org/abs/1602.06913
  54. 54.
    G. Pan, C. Tang, T. Li, and Y. Chen, “Secrecy Performance Analysis for SIMO Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer Systems,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 63, no. 9, pp. 3423–3433, Sep. 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Q. Shi, W. Xu, J. Wu, E. Song, and Y. Wang, “Secure Beamforming for MIMO Broadcasting With Wireless Information and Power Transfer,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 2841–2853, May 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    K. Banawan and S. Ulukus, “MIMO Wiretap Channel Under Receiver-Side Power Constraints With Applications to Wireless Power Transfer and Cognitive Radio,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 64, no. 9, pp. 3872–3885, Sep. 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    W. Mou, Y. Cai, W. Yang, W. Yang, X. Xu, and J. Hu, “Exploiting full Duplex techniques for secure communication in SWIPT system,” in Proc. WCSP, Nanjing, China, Oct. 2015, pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    W. Yang, W. Mou, X. Xu, W. Yang, and Y. Cai, “Energy efficiency analysis and enhancement for secure transmission in SWIPT systems exploiting full duplex techniques,” IET Communications, vol. 10, no. 14, pp. 1712–1720, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    S. S. Kalamkar and A. Banerjee, “Secure Communication Via a Wireless Energy Harvesting Untrusted Relay,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. PP, no. 99, pp. 1–1, 2016.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    A. Salem, K. A. Hamdi, and K. M. Rabie, “Physical Layer Security With RF Energy Harvesting in AF Multi-Antenna Relaying Networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 64, no. 7, pp. 3025–3038, Jul. 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    B. Li, Z. Fei, and H. Chen, “Robust Artificial Noise-Aided Secure Beamforming in Wireless-Powered Non-Regenerative Relay Networks,” IEEE Access, vol. 4, pp. 7921–7929, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    M. Zhao, X. Wang, and S. Feng, “Joint Power Splitting and Secure Beamforming Design in the Multiple Non-Regenerative Wireless-Powered Relay Networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1540–1543, Sep. 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    H. Xing, K. K. Wong, A. Nallanathan, and R. Zhang, “Wireless Powered Cooperative Jamming for Secrecy Multi-AF Relaying Networks,”IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 7971–7984, Dec. 2016.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    N. P. Nguyen, T. Q. Duong, H. Q. Ngo, Z. Hadzi-Velkov, and L. Shu, “Secure 5g Wireless Communications: A Joint Relay Selection and Wireless Power Transfer Approach,” IEEE Access, vol. 4, pp. 3349–3359, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    X. Chen, J. Chen, and T. Liu, “Secure Transmission in Wireless Powered Massive MIMO Relaying Systems: Performance Analysis and Optimization,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 65, no. 10, pp. 8025–8035, Oct. 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    L. Jiang, H. Tian, C. Qin, S. Gjessing, and Y. Zhang, “Secure Beamforming in Wireless-Powered Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 522–525, Mar. 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    W. Liu, X. Zhou, S. Durrani, and P. Popovski, “Secure Communication with a Wireless-Powered Friendly Jammer,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 401–415, Jan. 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    J. Moon, H. Lee, C. Song, and I. Lee, “Secrecy Performance Optimization for Wireless Powered Communication Networks with an Energy Harvesting Jammer,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. PP, no. 99, pp.1–1, 2016.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    A. E. Shafie, D. Niyato, and N. Al-Dhahir, “Security of an Ordered-Based Distributive Jamming Scheme,” IEEE Communications Letters, vol. PP, no. 99, pp. 1–1, 2016.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    L. Tang and Q. Li, “Wireless Power Transfer and Cooperative Jamming for Secrecy Throughput Maximization,” IEEE Wireless Commun. Lett., vol. PP, no. 99, pp. 1–1, 2016.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    X. Jiang, C. Zhong, Z. Zhang, and G. K. Karagiannidis, “Power Beacon Assisted Wiretap Channels With Jamming,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 8353–8367, Dec. 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    X. Jiang, C. Zhong, X. Chen, T. Q. Duong, T. A. Tsiftsis, and Z. Zhang, “Secrecy Performance of Wirelessly Powered Wiretap Channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 64, no. 9, pp. 3858–3871, Sep. 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    H. Xing, K.-K. Wong, Z. Chu, and A. Nallanathan, “To Harvest and Jam: A Paradigm of Self-Sustaining Friendly Jammers for Secure AF Relaying,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 63, no. 24, pp. 6616–6631, Dec. 2015.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    A. E. Shafie, D. Niyato, and N. Al-Dhahir, “Artificial-Noise-Aided Secure MIMO Full-Duplex Relay Channels With Fixed-Power Transmissions,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1591–1594, Aug. 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    R. Minerva, A. Biru, and D. Rotondi, “Towards a Definition of the Internet of Things (IoT),” May 2015, [online] Available: http://iot.ieee.org/definition.html.
  76. 76.
    H. Sundmaeker, P. Guillemin, P. Friess, and S. Woelffle, “Vision and Challenges for Realising the Internet of Things,” Cluster of European Research Projects on the Internet of Things, March 2010.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    A. McEwen and H. Cassimally, “Designing the Internet of Things,” John Wiley and Sons, 2014.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    A. Al-Fuqaha, M. Guizani, M. Mohammadi, M. Aledhari, and M. Ayyash, “Internet of Things: A Survey on Enabling Technologies, Protocols, and Applications,” IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 2347–2376, Fourth Quarter 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    L. Tan and N. Wang, “Future Internet: The Internet of Things,” 3rd International Conference on Advanced Computer Theory and Engineering(ICACTE), pp. V5-376 - V5-380, August 2010.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    W. Ye, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin, “An Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proceedings of the Twenty-First Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, June 2002, pp. 1567–1576.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    T. Van Dam and K. Langendoen, “An Adaptive Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, November 2003, pp. 171–180.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    A. El-Hoiydi and J-D. Decotignie, “WiseMAC: An Ultra Low Power MAC Protocol for Multi-hop Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proceedings of the First International Workshop, ALGOSENSORS, July 2004, pp. 18–31.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    J. Polastre, J. Hill, and D. Culler, “Versatile Low Power Media Access for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, November 2004, pp. 95–107.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Y. Yu, R. Govindan, and D. Estrin, “Geographical and Energy Aware Routing: a recursive data dissemination protocol for wireless sensor networks,” Technical Report UCLA/CSD-TR-01-0023, UCLA Computer Science Department, May 2001.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    D. Ganesan, R. Govindan, S. Shenker, and D. Estrin, “Highly-Resilient, Energy-Efficient Multipath Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks,” ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Communications Review, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 11–25, October 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abbas Jamalipour
    • 1
  • Ying Bi
    • 1
  1. 1.The University of SydneySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations