Immune Defense

  • Patrick L. Iversen


The world is full of life forms that threaten human health but they meet the most sophisticated immune defense system on Earth. The immune system continues to evolve shaped by changing pathogens. Pathogens counter with their own evolution probing for weak immune defenses. However, the ongoing emergence of new and re-emerging viral threats and drug resistant bacteria, fungi, and parasites mean immune defenses can rapidly adapt. This resilience is reflected in RNA transcripts that are part of the complex immune defense system.


Restriction endonucleases Innate immunity Natural T-killer Pattern recognition receptors Adaptive immunity Autoimmunity Immunosuppression 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrick L. Iversen
    • 1
  1. 1.LS PharmaOregon State UniversityGrand JctUSA

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