Advertisement

The President of the Republic and the Management of the Eurocrisis

  • Rui Graça Feijó
Chapter

Abstract

Portugal is one of the European countries with the longer history of republican regimes, and it has experienced over the last century all three government systems compatible with such a regime: parliamentary, presidentialist and semi-presidentialism. This chapter focuses on the role of presidents under semi-presidentialism and how it was affected by the onset of the Eurocrisis. It starts by offering a historical background to the institutional design that has been in force since 1976, with an important constitutional revision that touched upon presidential powers in 1982. Then, it analyses the relationship between presidents and political parties. Next, it discusses two main junctures in this long process: the election of the first civilian president (Mário Soares) after sixty years of praetorian supervision, which contributed to fine-tune conventions on the status of presidents, followed by the experience of Cavaco Silva who had to face the Eurocrisis and moved, with little success, to a different view of the president’s position in the political arena which hollowed the function. The last section deals with the current President Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa and his attempt to shift back to conventions on presidential status and role.

References

  1. Araújo, A. (2003). El Presidente de la República en la evolución del sistema político portugues. In A. Barreto, B. Gomez Forte, & P. Magalhães (Eds.), Portugal: Democracia y sistema politico (pp. 83–112). Madrid: Siglo XXI.Google Scholar
  2. Blanco de Morais, C. (2016, January 13). Semipresidencialismo de Assembleia. Público, p. 44.Google Scholar
  3. Blondel, J. (2015). The Presidential Republic. Basingstoke: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Braga da Cruz, M. (1994). O Presidente da Republica na génese e evolução do sistema de governo português. Análise Social, XXIX(125–126), 237–265.Google Scholar
  5. Braga da Cruz, M. (2017). O Sistema Político Português. Lisboa: Fundação Francisco Manuel dos Santos.Google Scholar
  6. Brancati, D. (2008). Winning Alone: The Electoral Fate of Independent Candidates Worldwide. Journal of Politics, 70(3), 648–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Canotilho, J. J. G., & Moreira, V. (1991). Os Poderes do Presidente da República. Coimbra: Coimbra Editora.Google Scholar
  8. Carey, J. M. (2000). Presidential Electoral Systems. In R. Rose (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Elections (pp. 220–224). Basingstoke and Oxford: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  9. Cavaco Silva, A. (2002). Autobiografia Política I. Lisboa: Temas e Debates.Google Scholar
  10. Cavaco Silva, A. (2004). Autobiografia Política II. Lisboa: Temas e Debates.Google Scholar
  11. Cavaco Silva, A. (2017). Quinta-feira e outros dias. Porto: Porto Editora.Google Scholar
  12. Cavaco Silva, A. (2018, February 17). Fui Presidente da República no tempo certo. E - Revista do Expresso.Google Scholar
  13. Costa Lobo, M. (2007). The Presidentialization of Portuguese Democracy? In T. Poguntke & P. Webb (Eds.), The Presidentialization of Politics (pp. 269–289). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Duverger, M. (1978). Échec au roi. Paris: Albin Michel.Google Scholar
  15. Duverger, M. (1980). A New Political System Model: Semi-presidential Government. European Journal of Political Research, 8(2), 165–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Duverger, M. (1996). Le Système Politique Français. Droit Constitutionnel et Science Politique. Paris: PUF.Google Scholar
  17. Ehin, F., Madise, U., Solvak, M., Taagepera, R., Vassil, K., & Vinkel, P. (2013). Independent Candidates in National and European Elections. Brussels, European Parliament, Directorate General for Internal Policies, Policy Department C—Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs.Google Scholar
  18. Feijó, R. G. (2012). Broken Promises, Postponed Commitments. In R. Herr & A. C. Pinto (Eds.), The Portuguese Republic at One Hundred (pp. 133–152). Berkeley: Portuguese Studies Program.Google Scholar
  19. Fernandes, J. M., & Jalali, C. (2017). Uma presidencia renovada? O semipresidencialismo português e as eleições de 2016. In A. Costa Pinto & P. J. C. Rapaz (Eds.), Presidentes e (Semi)presidencialismo nas democracias modernas (pp. 253–278). Lisboa: ICS.Google Scholar
  20. Freire, A., & Costa Pinto, A. (2010). O Poder Presidencial em Portugal. Os dilemas dos presidentes na República portuguesa. Lisboa: D. Quixote.Google Scholar
  21. Freire, A., & Santana-Pereira, J. (2017). O sistema semipresidencial português em tempos de crise, 2011–2016: um problema entre a responsabilidade internacional e a responsividade face aos eleitores. In A. Costa Pinto & P. J. C. Rapaz (Eds.), Presidentes e (Semi)presidencialismo nas democracias modernas (pp. 217–252). Lisboa: ICS.Google Scholar
  22. Gaspar, C. (1990). O processo constitucional e a establilidade do regime. Análise Social, XXV(105–106), 9–29.Google Scholar
  23. Jalali, C. (2011). The President Is Not a Passenger: Portuguese Evolving Semi-presidentialism. In R. Elgie, S. Moestrup, & Y.-S. Wu (Eds.), Semi-Presidentialism and Democracy (pp. 156–173). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  24. Martins, H. (2018). As Mudanças de Regime em Portugal no Século XX. Lisboa: ICS.Google Scholar
  25. Miranda, J. (1978). Fontes e Trabalhos Preparatórios para a Constituição. Lisboa: IN-CM.Google Scholar
  26. Moreira, A. (1987). Presidencialismo do Primeiro Ministro. In M. B. Coelho (Ed.), O Sistema Politico e Constitucional (pp. 31–38). Lisboa: ICS.Google Scholar
  27. North, D. (1990). Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pacheco Pereira, J. (2018, January 27). Marcelo no seu espelho de selfies. Público.Google Scholar
  29. Rapaz, P. J. C. (2017). O “veto político” do presidente da República Portuguesa, 1986–2013: uso e variáveis políticas. In A. Costa Pinto & P. J. C. Rapaz (Eds.), Presidentes e (Semi)presidencialismo nas democracias modernas (pp. 193–216). Lisboa: ICS.Google Scholar
  30. Rebelo Sousa, M. (1984). O sistema de governo português, antes e depois da revisão constitucional. Lisboa: Cognitio.Google Scholar
  31. Salgado de Matos, L. (1983). Significado e consequências da eleição do presidente por sufrágio universal – o caso português. Análise Social, XIX(76), 235–259.Google Scholar
  32. Salgado de Matos, L. (1986). Le cas portugais de 1976 à 1983: le Président opposé à la majorité. In M. Duverger (Ed.), Les regimes semipresidentiels (pp. 209–236). Paris: PUF.Google Scholar
  33. Samuels, D. J., & Shugart, M. S. (2010). Presidents, Parties and Prime Ministers: How the Separation of Power Affect Party Organization and Behaviour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Santana-Pereira, J. (2016). Política e entretenimento. Lisboa: Fundação Francisco Manuel dos Santos.Google Scholar
  35. Sardica, J. M. (2012). A Carta Constitucional Portuguesa de 1826. História Constitucional, 13, 527–561.Google Scholar
  36. Sartori, G. (1997). Comparative Constitutional Engineering. New York: New York University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Serrano, E. (2017, November 7). A estratégia de comunicação do Presidente Marcelo. Público.Google Scholar
  38. Sousa Tavares, M. (2018, January 27). Haverá vida além de Marcelo? Expresso.Google Scholar
  39. Teixeira, N. S. (2016, February 11). O Último Presidente. Público, p. 47.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rui Graça Feijó
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Social StudiesUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  2. 2.Institute for Contemporary HistoryNova UniversityLisbonPortugal

Personalised recommendations