Fibrotic Remodeling in Exudative (Wet) Macular Degeneration

  • Joseph N. MartelEmail author
  • Vincent Q. Nguyen
  • Andrew W. Eller
Part of the Molecular and Translational Medicine book series (MOLEMED)


The interplay of multiple biologic pathways and processes acts in synchrony to repair wounded tissue. Proangiogenic and inflammatory mediators allow enhanced delivery of oxygen and nutrients to repair wounded tissue. Fibrosis is the hallmark feature of wound healing in its final stage. In the eye, subretinal fibrosis, a nonfunctioning mass of fibrotic tissue situated in the subretinal space, is a manifestation of aberrant repair and is the characteristic end-stage subretinal lesion in exudative or neovascular age-related macular degenerative. The subretinal fibrotic lesion is preceded by gradual degeneration of the outer retinal cellular structures, the development of neovascular vessels, inflammation, and retinal tissue damage that culminates into the development of subretinal fibrosis. In this chapter, we will review the pathobiology of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) as it relates to the pathogenesis of its end-stage visually devastating cicatricial lesion: subretinal fibrosis.


Subretinal fibrosis Choroidal neovascularization Macular degeneration Ocular wound healing 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph N. Martel
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vincent Q. Nguyen
    • 2
  • Andrew W. Eller
    • 1
  1. 1.Vitreoretinal Surgery and DiseasesUniversity of Pittsburgh Medical CenterPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.University of Pittsburgh Medical CenterPittsburghUSA

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