Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease leading to an irreversible ß-cell deficit responsible for a complete insulin secretion deficiency. To date, no preventive or curative treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus has been successfully translated to standard clinical care. Type 1 diabetes treatment is based on lifelong multi-daily injections of exogenous insulin. In the last decades, considerable improvements in diabetes management have occurred: thanks to an intensive disease management and the widespread use of new therapies such as new insulin formulations and new medical devices (insulin pump, real-time continuous glucose monitoring system, improved glucose monitoring system), the overall glycemic control of patients with type 1 diabetes has improved, and the incidence of long-term diabetic complications and the mortality of type 1 diabetic patients have decreased.
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