Advertisement

Stem Cells Therapy for Cardiomyopathy: An Emerging Paradigm

  • Kanwal Rehman
  • Komal Jabeen
  • Muhammad Sajid Hamid AkashEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Stem Cells in Clinical Applications book series (SCCA)

Abstract

Cardiomyopathy is considered to be a genetic disorder and is manifested by rigidity and enlargement of cardiac muscles due to which heart is unable to pump efficiently disturbing normal cardiac rhythm that may lead to heart failure and/or other myocardial diseases. It has been estimated that more than 23 million peoples are suffering cardiac ailments worldwide. Replacement of cardiomyocytes and restoration of blood flow is necessary for reversal of cardiomyopathy, particularly if it is being passing on to generations as hereditary disease. Heart has a defined capacity for regeneration; however, cardiac stem cells (CSCs) have been recognized for their ability to repair and/or regenerate cardiomyocytes. CSCs are known to permit regeneration of cardiac muscle and having ability to differentiate, rapidly proliferate, and undergo self-renewal. The use of CSCs has caught more attraction due to their ability to replicate and recruit other stem cells for the regeneration of cardiac tissue. Unlimited sources of stem cells have been identified for cardiac repairment. Somatic stem cells (SSCs) obtained from bone marrow are considered as a major source for cardiac regeneration and improvement of diseases like cardiomyopathy. Similarly, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have shown great potential to differentiate and proliferate, signifying their probable role in cardiomyocyte regeneration. Moreover, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have also been extensively studied for their ability to regenerate cardiomyocytes and myocardium. Hence, in this chapter we will discuss the major sources, types of stem cells along with their abilities to differentiate, proliferate, and contribute in the regeneration of cardiomyocytes particularly in genetic diseases like cardiomyopathy.

Keywords

Cardiomyopathy Somatic stem cells Cardiac stem cells Embryonic stem cells Mesenchymal stem cells Cardiomyocytes 

References

  1. Abbate A, Biondi-Zoccai GG, Appleton DL, Erne P, Schoenenberger AW, Lipinski MJ et al (2008) Survival and cardiac remodeling benefits in patients undergoing late percutaneous coronary intervention of the infarct-related artery: evidence from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Am Coll Cardiol 51(9):956–964PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abelmann WH (1984) Classification and natural history of primary myocardial disease. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 27(2):73–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alcalai R, Seidman JG, Seidman CE (2008) Genetic basis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: from bench to the clinics. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 19(1):104–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bacon BR, Adams PC, Kowdley KV, Powell LW, Tavill AS (2011) Diagnosis and management of hemochromatosis: 2011 practice guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Hepatology 54(1):328–343PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Bearzi C, Rota M, Hosoda T, Tillmanns J, Nascimbene A, De Angelis A et al (2007) Human cardiac stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104(35):14068–14073.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0706760104PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Beltrami AP, Barlucchi L, Torella D, Baker M, Limana F, Chimenti S et al (2003) Adult cardiac stem cells are multipotent and support myocardial regeneration. Cell 114(6):763–776PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Billingham ME (1985) Pharmacotoxic myocardial disease: an endomyocardial study. Heart Vessel 1:278–282Google Scholar
  8. Blau HM, Brazelton TR, Weimann JM (2001) The evolving concept of a stem cell: entity or function? Cell 105(7):829–841PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Blomström-Lundqvist C, Sabel K-G, Olsson SB (1987) A long term follow up of 15 patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Heart 58(5):477–488Google Scholar
  10. Boheler KR, Crider DG, Tarasova Y, Maltsev VA (2005) Cardiomyocytes derived from embryonic stem cells. Methods Mol Med 108:417–435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bolli R, Chugh AR, D’Amario D, Loughran JH, Stoddard MF, Ikram S et al (2011) Cardiac stem cells in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy (SCIPIO): initial results of a randomised phase 1 trial. Lancet 378(9806):1847–1857PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Calabrese F, Basso C, Carturan E, Valente M, Thiene G (2006) Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia: is there a role for viruses? Cardiovasc Pathol 15(1):11–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Carpenter L, Carr C, Yang CT, Stuckey DJ, Clarke K, Watt SM (2011) Efficient differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells generates cardiac cells that provide protection following myocardial infarction in the rat. Stem Cells Dev 21(6):977–986PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Chew C, Ziady GM, Raphael MJ, Oakley CM (1975) The functional defect in amyloid heart disease: the “stiff heart” syndrome. Am J Cardiol 36(4):438–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Chien KR, Domian IJ, Parker KK (2008) Cardiogenesis and the complex biology of regenerative cardiovascular medicine. Science 322(5907):1494–1497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cueto-Garcia L, Tajik AJ, Kyle RA, Edwards WD, Greipp PR, Callahan JA et al (1984) Serial echocardiographic observations in patients with primary systemic amyloidosis: an introduction to the concept of early (asymptomatic) amyloid infiltration of the heart. Paper presented at the Mayo Clinic ProceedingsGoogle Scholar
  17. Dawn B, Bolli R (2005) Adult bone marrow–derived cells: regenerative potential, plasticity, and tissue commitment. Basic Res Cardiol 100(6):494–503PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. De Zwaan C, Daemen M, Hermens WT (2001) Mechanisms of cell death in acute myocardial infarction: pathophysiological implications for treatment. Neth Hear J 9(1):30Google Scholar
  19. Elliott P, Andersson B, Arbustini E, Bilinska Z, Cecchi F, Charron P et al (2007) Classification of the cardiomyopathies: a position statement from the European Society Of Cardiology Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases. Eur Heart J 29(2):270–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Felker GM, Shaw LK, O’Connor CM (2002) A standardized definition of ischemic cardiomyopathy for use in clinical research. J Am Coll Cardiol 39(2):210–218Google Scholar
  21. Fontaine G, Frank R, Fontaliran F, Lascault G, Tonet J (1992) Right ventricular tachycardias. In: Parmley WW, Chatterjee K (eds) Cardiology. JB Lippincott Co, New York, pp 1–17Google Scholar
  22. Fuchs S, Baffour R, Zhou YF, Shou M, Pierre A, Tio FO et al (2001) Transendocardial delivery of autologous bone marrow enhances collateral perfusion and regional function in pigs with chronic experimental myocardial ischemia. J Am Coll Cardiol 37(6):1726–1732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Fukuda K (2003) Use of adult marrow mesenchymal stem cells for regeneration of cardiomyocytes. Bone Marrow Transplant 32(S1):S25–S27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Geisterfer-Lowrance AA, Kass S, Tanigawa G, Vosberg H-P, McKenna W, Seidman CE, Seidman J (1990) A molecular basis for familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a β cardiac myosin heavy chain gene missense mutation. Cell 62(5):999–1006PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Gilbert E (1986) The effects of metabolic diseases on the cardiovascular system. Am J Cardiovasc Pathol 1(2):189–213Google Scholar
  26. Girolami F, Ho CY, Semsarian C, Baldi M, Will ML, Baldini K et al (2010) Clinical features and outcome of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with triple sarcomere protein gene mutations. J Am Coll Cardiol 55(14):1444–1453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (2016) Lancet 388(10053):1545–1602.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(16)31678-6Google Scholar
  28. Gnecchi M, Danieli P, Cervio E (2012) Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for heart disease. Vasc Pharmacol 57(1):48–55.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vph.2012.04.002Google Scholar
  29. Gottdiener JS, Katin MJ, Borer JS, Bacharach SL, Green MV (1983) Late cardiac effects of therapeutic mediastinal irradiation: assessment by echocardiography and radionuclide angiography. N Engl J Med 308(10):569–572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hershberger RE, Siegfried JD (2011) Update 2011: clinical and genetic issues in familial dilated cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 57(16):1641–1649PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Hescheler J, Fleischmann B, Wartenberg M, Bloch W, Kolossov E, Ji G et al (1999) Establishment of ionic channels and signalling cascades in the embryonic stem cell-derived primitive endoderm and cardiovascular system. Cells Tissues Organs 165(3-4):153–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Jefferies JL, Towbin JA (2010) Dilated cardiomyopathy. Lancet 375(9716):752–762.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(09)62023-7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Kasper EK, Agema WR, Hutchins GM, Deckers JW, Hare JM, Baughman KL (1994) The causes of dilated cardiomyopathy: a clinicopathologic review of 673 consecutive patients. J Am Coll Cardiol 23(3):586–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Kaur H, Khetarpal R, Aggarwal S (2013) Dilated cardiomyopathy: an anaesthetic challenge. J Clin Diagn Res 7(6):1174PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Klug MG, Soonpaa MH, Koh GY, Field LJ (1996) Genetically selected cardiomyocytes from differentiating embronic stem cells form stable intracardiac grafts. J Clin Investig 98(1):216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Laflamme MA, Murry CE (2011) Heart regeneration. Nature 473(7347):326–335.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10147PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Lipshultz SE, Sleeper LA, Towbin JA, Lowe AM, Orav EJ, Cox GF et al (2003) The incidence of pediatric cardiomyopathy in two regions of the United States. N Engl J Med 348(17):1647–1655.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa021715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Manyari DE, Klein GJ, Gulamhusein S, Boughner D, Guiraudon GM, Wyse G et al (1983) Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia: a generalized cardiomyopathy? Circulation 68(2):251–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Maron BJ (2002) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a systematic review. JAMA 287(10):1308–1320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Maron BJ (2004) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: an important global disease. Am J Med 116(1):63–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Maron BJ (2008) The 2006 American Heart Association classification of cardiomyopathies is the gold standard. Circ Heart Fail 1(1):72–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Maron BJ, Gardin JM, Flack JM, Gidding SS, Kurosaki TT, Bild DE (1995) Prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a general population of young adults. Echocardiographic analysis of 4111 subjects in the CARDIA Study. Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young) Adults. Circulation 92(4):785–789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Maron BJ, McKenna WJ, Danielson GK, Kappenberger LJ, Kuhn HJ, Seidman CE et al (2003) American College of Cardiology/European Society of Cardiology clinical expert consensus document on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a report of the American College of Cardiology foundation task force on clinical expert consensus documents and the European Society of Cardiology committee for practice guidelines. Eur Heart J 24(21):1965–1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Maron BJ, Towbin JA, Thiene G, Antzelevitch C, Corrado D, Arnett D et al (2006) Contemporary definitions and classification of the cardiomyopathies: an American Heart Association Scientific Statement from the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Heart Failure and Transplantation Committee; Quality of Care and Outcomes Research and Functional Genomics and Translational Biology Interdisciplinary Working Groups; and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention. Circulation 113(14):1807–1816.  https://doi.org/10.1161/circulationaha.106.174287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Mason JW, Billingham ME, Friedman JP (1977) Methysergide-induced heart disease: a case of multivalvular and myocardial fibrosis. Circulation 56(5):889–890PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. McKenna WJ, Thiene G, Nava A, Fontaliran F, Blomstrom-Lundqvist C, Fontaine G, Camerini F (1994) Diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy. Task Force of the Working Group Myocardial and Pericardial Disease of the European Society of Cardiology and of the Scientific Council on Cardiomyopathies of the International Society and Federation of Cardiology. Br Heart J 71(3):215PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Miani D, Pinamonti B, Bussani R, Silvestri F, Sinagra G, Camerini F (1993) Right ventricular dysplasia: a clinical and pathological study of two families with left ventricular involvement. Br Heart J 69(2):151–157PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Michler RE (2013) Stem cell therapy for heart failure. Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J 9(4):187–194PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Millat G, Bouvagnet P, Chevalier P, Sebbag L, Dulac A, Dauphin C et al (2011) Clinical and mutational spectrum in a cohort of 105 unrelated patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Eur J Med Genet 54(6):e570–e575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Nadal-Ginard B, Kajstura J, Leri A, Anversa P (2003) Myocyte death, growth, and regeneration in cardiac hypertrophy and failure. Circ Res 92(2):139–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Norman M, McKenna W (1999) Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: perspectives on disease. Z Kardiol 88(8):550–554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. O’Gara PT, Kushner FG, Ascheim DD, Casey DE, Chung MK, De Lemos JA et al (2012) 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Circulation 127(4):e362–e425.  https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0b013e3182742cf6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Orlic D, Kajstura J, Chimenti S, Limana F, Jakoniuk I, Quaini F et al (2001) Mobilized bone marrow cells repair the infarcted heart, improving function and survival. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98(18):10344–10349PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Pangonytė D, Stalioraitytė E, Žiuraitienė R, Kazlauskaitė D, Palubinskienė J, Balnytė I (2008) Cardiomyocyte remodeling in ischemic heart disease. Medicina 44(11):848–854PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Pera MF, Reubinoff B, Trounson A (2000) Human embryonic stem cells. J Cell Sci 113(1):5–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Petretta M, Pirozzi F, Sasso L, Paglia A, Bonaduce D (2011) Review and metaanalysis of the frequency of familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 108(8):1171–1176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Pinamonti B, Sinagra G, Salvi A, Di Lenarda A, Morgera T, Silvestri F et al (1992) Left ventricular involvement in right ventricular dysplasia. Am Heart J 123(3):711–724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Richard P, Villard E, Charron P, Isnard R (2006) The genetic bases of cardiomyopathies. J Am Coll Cardiol 48(9):A79–A89Google Scholar
  59. Segers VF, Lee RT (2008) Stem-cell therapy for cardiac disease. Nature 451(7181):937–942PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Selem S, Hatzistergos KE, Hare JM (2011) Cardiac stem cells: biology and therapeutic applications. In: Principles of regenerative medicine, Elsevier IncGoogle Scholar
  61. Sherrid MV, Chaudhry FA, Swistel DG (2003) Obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: echocardiography, pathophysiology, and the continuing evolution of surgery for obstruction. Ann Thorac Surg 75(2):620–632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Smith RR, Barile L, Cho HC, Leppo MK, Hare JM, Messina E et al (2007) Regenerative potential of cardiosphere-derived cells expanded from percutaneous endomyocardial biopsy specimens. Circulation 115(7):896–908PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Spaendonck-Zwarts KY, Rijsingen IA, Berg MP, Lekanne Deprez RH, Post JG, Mil AM et al (2013) Genetic analysis in 418 index patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: overview of 10 years’ experience. Eur J Heart Fail 15(6):628–636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Sugrue DD, Rodeheffer RJ, Codd MB, Ballard DJ, Fuster V, Gersh BJ (1992) The clinical course of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: a population-based study. Ann Intern Med 117(2):117–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Suskin N, Sheth T, Negassa A, Yusuf S (2001) Relationship of current and past smoking to mortality and morbidity in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. J Am Coll Cardiol 37(6):1677–1682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Teekakirikul P, Kelly MA, Rehm HL, Lakdawala NK, Funke BH (2013) Inherited cardiomyopathies: molecular genetics and clinical genetic testing in the postgenomic era. J Mol Diagn 15(2):158–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Thomson JA, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Shapiro SS, Waknitz MA, Swiergiel JJ, Marshall VS, Jones JM (1998) Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts. Science 282(5391):1145–1147PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Tongers J, Losordo DW, Landmesser U (2011) Stem and progenitor cell-based therapy in ischaemic heart disease: promise, uncertainties, and challenges. Eur Heart J 32(10):1197–1206PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Topol EJ, Califf RM (2007) Textbook of cardiovascular medicine. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  70. Tuch B (2006) Stem cells-a clinical update. Aust Fam Physician 35(9):719PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Urbanek K, Cesselli D, Rota M, Nascimbene A, De Angelis A, Hosoda T et al (2006) Stem cell niches in the adult mouse heart. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103(24):9226–9231PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Vittet D, Prandini M-H, Berthier R, Schweitzer A, Martin-Sisteron H, Uzan G, Dejana E (1996) Embryonic stem cells differentiate in vitro to endothelial cells through successive maturation steps. Blood 88(9):3424–3431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Watkins H, Ashrafian H, Redwood C (2011) Inherited cardiomyopathies. N Engl J Med 364(17):1643–1656.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra0902923PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Webb JG, Kerr CR, Huckell VF, Mizgala HF, Ricci DR (1986) Left ventricular abnormalities in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Am J Cardiol 58(6):568–570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Wu JM, Hsueh Y-C, Ch’ang H-J, Luo C-Y, Wu L-W, Nakauchi H, Hsieh PC (2015) Circulating cells contribute to cardiomyocyte regeneration after injury: novelty and significance. Circ Res 116(4):633–641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, Butler J, Casey DE, Colvin MM et al (2016) 2016 ACC/AHA/HFSA focused update on new pharmacological therapy for heart failure: an update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 68(13):1476–1488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Yang J, Zhou W, Zheng W, Ma Y, Lin L, Tang T et al (2007) Effects of myocardial transplantation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells transfected with vascular endothelial growth factor for the improvement of heart function and angiogenesis after myocardial infarction. Cardiology 107(1):17–29.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000093609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Young HE, Steele TA, Bray RA, Detmer K, Blake LW, Lucas PW, Black AC Jr (1999) Human pluripotent and progenitor cells display cell surface cluster differentiation markers CD10, CD13, CD56, and MHC class-I. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 221(1):63–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Young HE, Duplaa C, Young TM, Floyd JA, Reeves ML, Davis KH et al (2001a) Clonogenic analysis reveals reserve stem cells in postnatal mammals: I. Pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells. Anat Rec 263(4):350–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Young HE, Steele TA, Bray RA, Hudson J, Floyd JA, Hawkins K et al (2001b) Human reserve pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells are present in the connective tissues of skeletal muscle and dermis derived from fetal, adult, and geriatric donors. Anat Rec 264(1):51–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Zamilpa R, Navarro MM, Flores I, Griffey S (2014) Stem cell mechanisms during left ventricular remodeling post-myocardial infarction: repair and regeneration. World J Cardiol 6(7):610–620.  https://doi.org/10.4330/wjc.v6.i7.610PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kanwal Rehman
    • 1
  • Komal Jabeen
    • 1
  • Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Pharmacy, Physiology and PharmacologyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutical ChemistryGovernment College University FaisalabadFaisalabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations