Epithelium-On Corneal Cross-Linking

  • David P. S. O’Brart


This chapter reviews the published literature on epithelium-on (trans-epithelial) Riboflavin and Ultraviolet A (UVA) 370 nanometre (nm) light corneal collagen cross-linking (TE-CXL). Importance has been placed on seminal publications, systemic reviews, meta-analyses and randomized controlled clinical trials. Where such evidence was not available, cohort studies, case controlled studies and case series with follow-up greater than 12 months were examined.


Cornea Keratoconus Cross-linking Riboflavin Ultraviolet light Iontophoresis 


Financial Disclosures Related to Manuscript

Professor O’Brart holds non-commercial research grants from Alcon Inc. and Avedro Inc.

He has undertaken paid consultancy work for Alcon Inc. and Sooft Italia SPA in the past 12 months


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • David P. S. O’Brart
    • 1
  1. 1.King’s College, London and Guy’s and St. Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, Department of OphthalmologySt. Thomas’ HospitalLondonUK

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